Trypanosoma brucei is a species of parasitic protozoan that causes African trypanosomiasis, which is also known as African sleeping sickness. Its two most recognized subspecies are Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (southern and eastern Africa) and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (central and western Africa). It is transmitted by the tsetse fly and primarily affects humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa,
Symptoms of sleeping sickness may include fever, headache, joint pain, itching, and swollen lymph nodes, followed by neurological symptoms such as confusion, sleep disturbances, and seizures as the infection progresses. Treatment of sleeping sickness typically involves a combination of drugs, such as pentamidine and suramin, for the early stages of the disease, and more toxic drugs, such as melarsoprol and eflornithine, for the later stages.