Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)


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Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)



Plasmodium species (Malaria)


Giardia lamblia

Entamoeba histolytica (Amebiasis)



Naegleria fowleri (Primary amebic meningoencephalitis)

Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)

Trypanosoma brucei

Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)

Trichomonas vaginalis



Loa loa (Eye worm)

Toxocara canis (Visceral larva migrans)

Onchocerca volvulus (River blindness)

Ascaris lumbricoides


Angiostrongylus (Eosinophilic meningitis)

Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus

Strongyloides stercoralis

Guinea worm (Dracunculiasis)

Wuchereria bancrofti (Lymphatic filariasis)

Trichinella spiralis

Enterobius vermicularis (Pinworm)

Trichuris trichiura (Whipworm)

Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid disease)

Diphyllobothrium latum

Paragonimus westermani

Clonorchis sinensis



Pediculus humanus and Phthirus pubis (Lice)

Sarcoptes scabiei (Scabies)


Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)


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High Yield Notes

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Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)

of complete

External References

First Aid








Cardiomyopathy p. 317

Chagas disease p. 155

Chagas disease p. 155

achalasia in p. 385

cardiomyopathy in p. 317

labs/findings p. 720


Chagas disease p. 155


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Evan Debevec-McKenney

Tanner Marshall, MS

Pauline Rowsome, BSc (Hons)

Chagas Disease, also called American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic disease common in Central and South America, caused by a protozoan called Trypanosoma cruzi or T. cruzi for short.

T. cruzi is transmitted through the feces of the insect triatominae.

Triatominae is a type of reduviid bug also called the kissing bug because it typically bites people on the face as they sleep at night - one heck of a good night kiss, huh?

The disease gets its name from Carlos Chagas, the physician who first described it.

The life cycle of T. cruzi starts with the epimastigote T. cruzi which sits in the lumen of the Reduviid bug’s midgut.

–Mastigote refers to the whip-like structure called a flagellum which protrudes from the center of the T. cruzi and helps it move around.

While in the midgut, the epimastigote multiplies through binary fission.

Over time, the epimastigote transforms into a trypomastigote and at that point it loses its ability to divide, but the trade-off is that it gains the ability to invade human cells.

In fact “trypo” means to bore or punch into.

Reduviid bugs feed off the blood of humans, and they prefer biting a person’s face, which is why they’re also called kissing bugs.

But unlike a normal kiss, the reduviid bug then defecates at the bite site, and if the reduviid bug is infected with T. cruzi, the feces can contain trypomastigotes.

These trypomastigotes can then infect human skin cells at the bite location; or at mucous membranes, particularly the conjunctiva of the eyes.

That can happen if a person unknowingly transfers the trypomastigotes by rubbing the bite site on their face and then touching their eyes.

Once the trypomastigote invades a human cell, it transforms into an amastigote meaning that it loses its flagellum.

The amastigotes multiply intracellularly, again through binary fission, and then transform into blood trypomastigotes which can move through the blood and lymph to other tissues.

The blood trypomastigotes then invade more cells, and then again turn into amastigotes to multiply intracellularly again - and that’s how the cycle goes.

Now, a person infected by a T. cruzi infected reduviid bug, can then get bitten by a brand new reduviid bug.


Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan that causes Chagas disease, a serious illness common in Central and South America. The disease is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected triatomine bugs, commonly known as "kissing bugs," which are found in the walls and roofs of poorly constructed houses in rural and suburban areas.

Symptoms of Chagas disease may include fever, fatigue, body aches, and swelling at the site of infection, followed by more serious complications such as heart disease, digestive problems, and neurological damage as the infection progresses. The disease can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Treatment of Chagas disease typically involves antiparasitic medications, such as benznidazole or nifurtimox, which are most effective in the early stages of the disease. However, these medications may not be effective in treating the chronic form of the disease or in advanced cases.


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