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Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Transitional cell carcinoma
Hypospadias and epispadias
Posterior urethral valves
Lower urinary tract infection
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Minimal change disease
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease
Renal tubular acidosis
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Renal cell carcinoma
Renal artery stenosis
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
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Urinary Incontinence | Amy's Story
urgency incontinence p. 620
incontinence with p. 620
urinary incontinence with p. 620
drug therapy for p. 240
ephedrine for p. 241
hydrocephalus p. 538
multiple sclerosis p. 539
Urinary incontinence is a problem where the process of urination, also called micturition, happens involuntarily, meaning that a person might urinate without intending to.
Urinary incontinence is particularly problematic because it affects a person’s personal hygiene as well as their social life in a way that can be very limiting.
Normally, urine is held in the bladder, which receives urine from two ureters coming down from the kidneys and then that urine leaves the bladder through the urethra. As urine flows from the kidney, through the ureters and into the bladder, the bladder starts to expand into the abdomen.
The bladder is able to expand and contract because it’s wrapped in a muscular layer, called the detrusor muscle, and within that, lining the bladder itself is a layer of transitional epithelium containing “umbrella cells”. These umbrella cells get their name because they physically stretch out as the bladder fills, just like an umbrella opening up in slow-motion. In a grown adult, the bladder can expand to hold about 750ml, slightly less in women than men because the uterus takes up space which crowds out the bladder a little bit.
Alright, so when the urine is collecting in the bladder, there are basically two “doors” that are shut, holding that urine in. The first door is the internal sphincter muscle, which is made of smooth muscle and is under involuntary control, meaning that it opens and closes automatically. Typically, that internal sphincter muscle opens up when the bladder is about half full.
Urinary incontinence is a common condition that occurs when urine involuntarily leaks from the bladder, often through the internal and external sphincter muscles. There are several types of urinary incontinence, including urge incontinence, stress incontinence, and overflow incontinence.
Urge incontinence is typically caused by an overactive bladder, which can lead to sudden and strong urges to urinate that are difficult to control. Stress incontinence, on the other hand, is often due to increased pressure on the bladder, which can happen during physical activity, sneezing, or coughing. Overflow incontinence is caused by incomplete emptying of the bladder, leading to urine leakage due to bladder overfilling.
The treatment for urinary incontinence depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common interventions include strengthening the external sphincter muscle by doing things like Kegel exercises, and catheterization or medications like alpha-blockers, which relax the smooth muscle to assist with urination.
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