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Urinary tract infections: Clinical
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They’re usually caused by bacteria found in fecal flora, which normally colonizes the urethral meatus.
However, when those bacteria make their way up the urethra and into the bladder, they can cause lower UTIs, like cystitis, which is the inflammation of the bladder, or upper UTIs, like acute pyelonephritis, which is the inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidneys.
By complicated, we mean that the individual has an associated structural or functional condition of the genitourinary tract or an underlying disease which increases the risk of a severe infection.
So a complicated UTI is one that happens in a male, a pregnant female, and individuals with indwelling urinary catheters.
Additionally, it’s considered a complicated UTI when it happens in individuals with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, immunocompromised individuals, those with urologic conditions- like urethral strictures, and those that have had urologic procedures.
So let’s start with uncomplicated cystitis.
Another pathogen is Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
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