AssessmentsUrinary tract infections: Pathology review
USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE
A 23-year-old woman presents to the primary care clinic due to a burning sensation with urination. The symptoms started 3 days ago and now cause the patient to wake up multiple times at night to urinate. Past medical history is unremarkable. The patient is sexually active with their spouse. Physical examination is unremarkable and vital signs are within normal limits. Urinalysis is positive for leukocytes and leukocyte esterase. Urine culture reveals growth of Gram-positive cocci. Which of the following is a feature of the causative organism most likely responsible for this patient’s condition?
Two people came to the Nephrology ward.
The first one is 25 year old Carmen who recently returned from her honeymoon and now complains of suprapubic pain, dysuria and urinary frequency.
The other one is 35 year old Pamela who has had dysuria, fever, nausea and flank pain for the past 2 days.
On physical exam, she has costovertebral angle tenderness.
CBC and urinalysis were done for both people.
They showed that Carmen had a normal white blood cell count, but on the dipstick test, leukocyte esterase and nitrites were both positive.
For Pamela, the white blood count was high, the dipstick test showed positive leukocyte esterase and nitrites, and on microscopy, there’s white blood cell casts in the urine.
In most cases, ascending infections are caused by Escherichia coli, but other bacteria like Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Proteus mirabilis can also cause ascending infections.
Now, descending infections are also possible in rare cases.
This is when the kidneys get infected via hematogenous infection, or spread through the bloodstream.
In these situations, the most common organisms are Staphylococcus species and again E. coli.
Okay, let’s talk about cystitis.
There are some risk factors associated with cystitis.
It’s more common in female individuals, because they have a shorter urethra, making it easier for the bacteria to ascend and because the urethra is closer to the rectum, where the primary culprits “live”.
Another risk factor is frequent sexual intercourse, which can lead to “honeymoon cystitis,” especially in younger female individuals.
Remember this type of infection is often caused by Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Symptoms include dysuria, which is painful urination, urinary frequency and urgency, and suprapubic pain.
CBC, urinalysis, and urine cultures are done to confirm the diagnosis and find the culprit.
On the CBC, the white blood count is normal.
The appearance of the urine is often cloudy and the dipstick test shows positive leukocyte esterase, which signifies pyuria, or the presence of white blood cell in the urine.
On microscopy, there are more than 10 white blood cells per high power field.
The best way to identify the organism for treatment is to do a urine culture.
Both of these are sexually transmitted infections.
With both, urinalysis shows sterile pyuria, meaning that leukocyte esterase is positive, but when cultures are done, no bacteria are found.
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