Eyes, ears, nose, and throat




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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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A 28-year-old man comes to his primary care physician for evaluation of persistent low back pain and stiffness of several weeks duration. The pain is worse in the morning and gradually improves with activity throughout the day. The patient is sexually active and has had four partners in the past year. Vital signs are within normal limits. Physical examination demonstrates limited spine flexion and tenderness to palpation of the lumbar spine. Laboratory results show a microcytic anemia and an elevated platelet count. An x-ray of the lumbar spine is demonstrated below. Further history is most likely to reveal which of the following clinical features?  

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Eye disorders

uveitis p. 391

HLA genes

uveitis p. 555

Posterior uveitis p. 555

Rheumatoid arthritis p. 476

uveitis p. 555

Sarcoidosis p. 701

uveitis p. 555

Uveitis p. 555

inflammatory bowel disease p. 391

sarcoidosis p. 701, 720

seronegative spondyloarthritis p. 479

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea. The uvea consists of the middle layer of pigmented vascular structures of the eye and includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The exact cause of uveitis is often unknown, but it can be related to an underlying autoimmune or infectious disease, as well as trauma or exposure to toxins.

Symptoms of uveitis can include eye redness, pain, light sensitivity, blurred vision, and floaters. Diagnosis is typically made through a comprehensive eye exam and may include laboratory tests or imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the inflammation and may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or antibiotics. Without prompt treatment, uveitis can lead to complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, or permanent vision loss.


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