Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)


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Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic Heart Disorders


Coronary artery disease: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Coronary artery disease (CAD) & angina pectoris: Nursing Process (ADPIE)

Coronary circulation

Endocarditis: Pathology review


Infective endocarditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Clinician's Corner: Endocarditis


Pericarditis and pericardial effusion

Pericardial disease: Pathology review

Pericardial effusion & cardiac tamponade: Nursing Process (ADPIE)

Pericardial disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Cardiac tamponade

Mitral valve disease

Aortic valve disease

Valvular heart disease: Pathology review

Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatic heart disease

Rheumatic heart disease: Nursing Process (ADPIE)

Normal heart sounds

Abnormal heart sounds

Heart failure

Heart failure: Pathology review

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Left-sided heart failure: Nursing Process (ADPIE)


Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 12 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 52-year-old woman comes to the dental clinic because of severe pain in the left second molar. She was diagnosed with grade III periodontitis and was advised to undergo extraction of her teeth. She has a history of diabetes and mitral valve prolapse. She has an allergy to amoxicillin, but is curious if she needs antibiotic prophylaxis. Which of the following prophylactic antibiotic regimens would be appropriate for this patient prior to tooth extraction?


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Antonella Melani, MD

Evan Debevec-McKenney

Valvular heart disease involves damage or a defect in one or more of the four valves of the heart, so the aortic and bicuspid or mitral valves on the left side of the heart, and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right side of the heart.

Normally, the valvular leaflets are very thin and when the cusps close they're perfectly apposed.

Valvular heart diseases are divided into stenosis - in which there’s narrowing of the valvular orifice that prevents adequate outflow of blood - and insufficiency or regurgitation, in which the valvular leaflets fail to close correctly and are unable to prevent backflow of blood.

These two are not mutually exclusive, which means they can both be present in the same individual and even in the same valve, for instance if thickening of the leaflets results in inappropriate closure as well as a narrow orifice.

Individuals with valvular heart disease are generally asymptomatic for a prolonged period, even for decades, and as soon as they become symptomatic, their life expectancy deteriorates very quickly.

The main symptoms are dyspnea, syncope, and angina. Both stenosis and regurgitation lead to turbulent flow when blood flows across the affected valve, which produces heart sounds called pathologic murmurs that are loud enough to be heard upon auscultation with a stethoscope.

When presentation suggests valvular heart disease, you should proceed with echocardiography to confirm the diagnosis of valvular disease and determine its severity.

A transthoracic echocardiogram is typically done, but a transesophageal echocardiogram may be needed in selected individuals, like those with a nondiagnostic transthoracic echocardiogram.

Doppler echocardiography allows determination the speed and direction of blood flow, which makes it the most sensitive noninvasive technique for detecting the regurgitant jet.

In some cases cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging may be indicated to quantify the severity, measure left ventricular diastolic and systolic volumes, and assess left ventricular systolic function.



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