Citric acid cycle

Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation


Glycogen metabolism

Pentose phosphate pathway

Amino acid metabolism

Nitrogen and urea cycle

Fatty acid synthesis

Fatty acid oxidation

Ketone body metabolism

Cholesterol metabolism

Nuclear structure

DNA structure

Transcription of DNA

Translation of mRNA

Amino acids and protein folding

Nucleotide metabolism

DNA replication

DNA damage and repair

Cell cycle

Mitosis and meiosis

DNA mutations

Mendelian genetics and punnett squares

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Inheritance patterns

Independent assortment of genes and linkage

Gene regulation


Evolution and natural selection

Empathetic listening for clinicians

Shared decision-making

How to deliver bad news

The do's and don'ts of patient care

Taking a good patient history

Introduction to vital signs (for nursing assistant training)

Study designs

Test precision and accuracy

Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist

Childhood nutrition and obesity: Information for patients and families (The Primary School)

Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance

Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions

Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution

Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance

Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism

Drug administration and dosing regimens

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

Tricyclic antidepressants

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Atypical antidepressants

Typical antipsychotics

Atypical antipsychotics


Nonbenzodiazepine anticonvulsants

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines

Psychomotor stimulants

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Antituberculosis medications

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

Integrase and entry inhibitors

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)

Protease inhibitors

Hepatitis medications

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

Neuraminidase inhibitors

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anthelmintic medications


Anti-mite and louse medications

Sympathomimetics: Direct agonists

Muscarinic antagonists

Cholinomimetics: Direct agonists

Cholinomimetics: Indirect agonists (anticholinesterases)

Sympatholytics: Alpha-2 agonists

Adrenergic antagonists: Presynaptic

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

cGMP mediated smooth muscle vasodilators

Class I antiarrhythmics: Sodium channel blockers

Class II antiarrhythmics: Beta blockers

Class III antiarrhythmics: Potassium channel blockers

Class IV antiarrhythmics: Calcium channel blockers and others

Lipid-lowering medications: Statins

Lipid-lowering medications: Fibrates

Miscellaneous lipid-lowering medications

Positive inotropic medications

Hyperthyroidism medications

Hypothyroidism medications


Hypoglycemics: Insulin secretagogues

Miscellaneous hypoglycemics

Adrenal hormone synthesis inhibitors

Mineralocorticoids and mineralocorticoid antagonists

Antihistamines for allergies

Acid reducing medications

Laxatives and cathartics


Anticoagulants: Heparin

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications


Hematopoietic medications

Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

Topoisomerase inhibitors

Platinum containing medications

Anti-tumor antibiotics

Microtubule inhibitors

DNA alkylating medications

Monoclonal antibodies

Antimetabolites for cancer treatment


Non-corticosteroid immunosuppressants and immunotherapies

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications

Osteoporosis medications

Migraine medications

General anesthetics

Local anesthetics

Neuromuscular blockers

Anti-parkinson medications

Medications for neurodegenerative diseases

Opioid antagonists

Osmotic diuretics

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

Potassium sparing diuretics

Androgens and antiandrogens

PDE5 inhibitors

Estrogens and antiestrogens

Progestins and antiprogestins

Aromatase inhibitors

Uterine stimulants and relaxants

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines


Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS): Clinical (To be retired)

Respiratory: Oxygen therapy (for nursing assistant training)

Respiratory: Pulse oximetry (for nursing assistant training)

Respiratory: Measuring respiration (for nursing assistant training)

Respiratory: Incentive spirometry (for nursing assistant training)

Introduction to the cardiovascular system

Anatomy of the heart

Anatomy of the coronary circulation

Anatomy clinical correlates: Heart

Anatomy of the superior mediastinum

Anatomy of the inferior mediastinum

Anatomy clinical correlates: Mediastinum

Development of the cardiovascular system

Fetal circulation

Cardiac muscle histology

Artery and vein histology

Arteriole, venule and capillary histology

Cardiovascular system anatomy and physiology

Lymphatic system anatomy and physiology

Coronary circulation

Blood pressure, blood flow, and resistance

Pressures in the cardiovascular system

Laminar flow and Reynolds number

Resistance to blood flow

Compliance of blood vessels

Control of blood flow circulation

Microcirculation and Starling forces

Measuring cardiac output (Fick principle)

Stroke volume, ejection fraction, and cardiac output

Cardiac contractility

Frank-Starling relationship

Cardiac preload

Cardiac afterload

Law of Laplace

Cardiac and vascular function curves

Altering cardiac and vascular function curves

Cardiac cycle

Cardiac work

Pressure-volume loops

Changes in pressure-volume loops

Physiological changes during exercise

Cardiovascular changes during hemorrhage

Cardiovascular changes during postural change

Normal heart sounds

Abnormal heart sounds

Action potentials in myocytes

Action potentials in pacemaker cells

Excitability and refractory periods

Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling

Electrical conduction in the heart

Cardiac conduction velocity

ECG basics

ECG rate and rhythm

ECG intervals

ECG QRS transition

ECG axis

ECG normal sinus rhythm

ECG cardiac infarction and ischemia

ECG cardiac hypertrophy and enlargement



Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Arterial disease

Angina pectoris

Stable angina

Unstable angina

Myocardial infarction

Prinzmetal angina

Coronary steal syndrome

Peripheral artery disease

Subclavian steal syndrome


Aortic dissection


Behcet's disease

Kawasaki disease


Hypertensive emergency

Renal artery stenosis

Coarctation of the aorta

Cushing syndrome

Conn syndrome


Polycystic kidney disease


Orthostatic hypotension


Familial hypercholesterolemia



Chronic venous insufficiency


Deep vein thrombosis




Vascular tumors

Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)


Truncus arteriosus

Transposition of the great vessels

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Tetralogy of Fallot

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Patent ductus arteriosus

Ventricular septal defect

Atrial septal defect

Atrial flutter

Atrial fibrillation

Premature atrial contraction

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Ventricular tachycardia

Brugada syndrome

Premature ventricular contraction

Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes

Ventricular fibrillation

Atrioventricular block

Bundle branch block

Pulseless electrical activity

Tricuspid valve disease

Pulmonary valve disease

Mitral valve disease

Aortic valve disease

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Heart failure

Cor pulmonale



Rheumatic heart disease

Pericarditis and pericardial effusion

Cardiac tamponade

Dressler syndrome

Cardiac tumors

Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Pathology review

Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review

Valvular heart disease: Pathology review

Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review

Heart failure: Pathology review

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review

Pericardial disease: Pathology review

Endocarditis: Pathology review

Hypertension: Pathology review

Shock: Pathology review

Vasculitis: Pathology review

Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Dyslipidemias: Pathology review

Cardiomyopathies: Clinical (To be retired)

Congenital heart defects: Clinical (To be retired)

Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Infective endocarditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Pericardial disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Chest trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypertension: Clinical (To be retired)

Pulmonary hypertension

Aortic aneurysms and dissections: Clinical (To be retired)

Raynaud phenomenon

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: Pathology review

Fascia, vessels and nerves of the upper limb

Vessels and nerves of the forearm

Blood vessels and nerves of the hand

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Blood supply of the foregut, midgut and hindgut

Fascia, vessels, and nerves of the lower limb

Vessels and nerves of the gluteal region and posterior thigh

Anatomy of the popliteal fossa


Ventilation-perfusion ratios and V/Q mismatch

Gas exchange in the lungs, blood and tissues

Oxygen binding capacity and oxygen content

Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve

Carbon dioxide transport in blood

Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease)

Yellow fever virus

Rickettsia rickettsii (Rocky Mountain spotted fever) and other Rickettsia species

Arteriovenous malformation

Cerebral circulation

Pharyngeal arches, pouches, and clefts

Endocrine system anatomy and physiology

Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Pancreas and spleen

Pituitary gland histology

Thyroid and parathyroid gland histology

Pancreas histology

Adrenal gland histology

Synthesis of adrenocortical hormones

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Growth hormone and somatostatin

Hunger and satiety

Antidiuretic hormone

Thyroid hormones






Estrogen and progesterone

Oxytocin and prolactin

Parathyroid hormone


Vitamin D

Phosphate, calcium and magnesium homeostasis

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review

Primary adrenal insufficiency

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome


Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease: Pathology review

Adrenal masses: Pathology review

Adrenal masses and tumors: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenal cortical carcinoma

Thyroglossal duct cyst


Hyperthyroidism: Pathology review

Graves disease

Thyroid eye disease (NORD)

Toxic multinodular goiter

Euthyroid sick syndrome


Hypothyroidism: Pathology review

Hashimoto thyroiditis

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis

Riedel thyroiditis

Thyroid storm

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Pathology review

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Parathyroid disorders and calcium imbalance: Pathology review

Parathyroid conditions and calcium imbalance: Clinical (To be retired)





Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic retinopathy

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review

Diabetes insipidus

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

Hypopituitarism: Pathology review



Pituitary adenoma

Pituitary apoplexy

Pituitary tumors: Pathology review

Sheehan syndrome






Constitutional growth delay

Puberty and Tanner staging

Precocious puberty

Delayed puberty

Kallmann syndrome

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

5-alpha-reductase deficiency

Menstrual cycle

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Premature ovarian failure


Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (NORD)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia: Pathology review

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

Carcinoid syndrome


Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (NORD)

Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum

Anatomy of the oral cavity (dentistry)

Anatomy of the pharynx and esophagus

Anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Esophagus and stomach

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Small intestine

Anatomy of the abdominal viscera: Large intestine

Anatomy clinical correlates: Anterior and posterior abdominal wall

Abdominal quadrants, regions and planes

Development of the digestive system and body cavities

Development of the gastrointestinal system

Development of the teeth

Development of the tongue

Gallbladder histology

Esophagus histology

Stomach histology

Small intestine histology

Colon histology

Liver histology

Gastrointestinal system anatomy and physiology

Anatomy and physiology of the teeth

Liver anatomy and physiology

Escherichia coli

Salmonella (non-typhoidal)

Yersinia enterocolitica

Clostridium difficile (Pseudomembranous colitis)


Salmonella typhi (typhoid fever)

Clostridium perfringens

Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)



Bacillus cereus (Food poisoning)

Campylobacter jejuni

Bacteroides fragilis


Enteric nervous system

Esophageal motility

Gastric motility

Gastrointestinal hormones

Chewing and swallowing

Carbohydrates and sugars

Fats and lipids


Vitamins and minerals

Intestinal fluid balance

Pancreatic secretion

Bile secretion and enterohepatic circulation

Prebiotics and probiotics

Cleft lip and palate



Oral candidiasis

Aphthous ulcers

Ludwig angina

Warthin tumor

Oral cancer

Dental caries disease

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal web

Esophagitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Barrett esophagus


Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Esophageal cancer

Esophageal disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Boerhaave syndrome

Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Peptic ulcer

Helicobacter pylori


Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Pyloric stenosis

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastric dumping syndrome


Gastric cancer


Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome

Celiac disease

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Tropical sprue

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Malabsorption: Clinical (To be retired)

Zinc deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition: Pathology review

Whipple's disease

Appendicitis: Pathology review


Appendicitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Lactose intolerance

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstruction: Clinical (To be retired)


Familial adenomatous polyposis

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Diverticulosis and diverticulitis

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Intestinal adhesions

Ischemic colitis



Cyclic vomiting syndrome

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Hernias: Clinical (To be retired)

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Imperforate anus



Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Anal conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome

Jaundice: Pathology review



Cirrhosis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis


Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus

Hepatitis B and Hepatitis D virus

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Autoimmune hepatitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review


Gallstone ileus

Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder disorders: Clinical (To be retired)


Pancreatic pseudocyst

Acute pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatitis: Clinical (To be retired)