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Generalized anxiety disorder
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Amnesia, dissociative disorders and delirium: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Dementia: Pathology review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Alcohol: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Hallucinogens: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Other depressants: Pathology review
Drug misuse, intoxication and withdrawal: Stimulants: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Malingering, factitious disorders and somatoform disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Personality disorders: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Psychological sleep disorders: Pathology review
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Pathology review
Trauma- and stress-related disorders: Pathology review
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Jim's story: The dementia guide
With vascular dementia, vascular refers to the blood flow to the brain, and dementia refers to problems like poor memory, difficulty communicating, and difficulty learning new information.
Vascular dementia is also known as multi-infarct dementia, and it’s a progressive loss of brain function caused by long term poor blood flow to the brain, typically because of a series of strokes.
OK, let’s start with some basic brain anatomy. The brain has a few regions - the most obvious is the cerebrum, which is divided into two cerebral hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe.
The frontal lobe controls movement, and our personalities, it also handles our ability to count and spell, and make decisions.
The parietal lobe processes sensory information, which lets us locate exactly where we are physically and guides movements in a three dimensional space.
The temporal lobe plays a role in hearing, smell, and memory, as well as visual recognition of faces and languages.
Finally there’s the occipital lobe which is primarily responsible for processing visual information.
All the cells in the body need oxygen - and that’s particularly relevant for neurons, which can only function in aerobic conditions, meaning with constant supply of oxygen.
Neurons also don’t have long term energy stores, so they need a constant supply of glucose to keep working.
Each time the heart beats, about a quarter of the blood pumped out goes directly to your brain, via the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries in the neck.
Once they reach the base of the brain, these arteries join to form a ring, called the circle of Willis, which then branches off into smaller and smaller arteries, the smallest being the perforating arteries, that eventually supply the entire brain with oxygen and glucose.
Vascular dementia is a progressive loss of brain function caused by multiple strokes, or infarcts, which in turn are caused by atherosclerosis of the vessels supplying the brain. Symptoms can vary depending on the affected regions of that brain but may include problems with memory, thinking, and judgment, as well as difficulty with daily tasks and changes in mood or personality. Treatment for vascular dementia may include medications to manage symptoms and lifestyle changes to reduce risk factors for stroke, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking.
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