Vascular tumors


00:00 / 00:00



Vascular tumors

Cardiovascular system

Vascular disorders

Arterial disease

Angina pectoris

Stable angina

Unstable angina

Myocardial infarction

Prinzmetal angina

Coronary steal syndrome

Peripheral artery disease

Subclavian steal syndrome


Aortic dissection


Behcet's disease

Kawasaki disease


Hypertensive emergency

Renal artery stenosis

Coarctation of the aorta

Cushing syndrome

Conn syndrome


Polycystic kidney disease


Orthostatic hypotension


Familial hypercholesterolemia



Chronic venous insufficiency


Deep vein thrombosis




Vascular tumors

Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)


Congenital heart defects

Truncus arteriosus

Transposition of the great vessels

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Tetralogy of Fallot

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

Patent ductus arteriosus

Ventricular septal defect

Coarctation of the aorta

Atrial septal defect

Cardiac arrhythmias

Atrial flutter

Atrial fibrillation

Premature atrial contraction

Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

Ventricular tachycardia

Brugada syndrome

Premature ventricular contraction

Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes

Ventricular fibrillation

Atrioventricular block

Bundle branch block

Pulseless electrical activity

Valvular disorders

Tricuspid valve disease

Pulmonary valve disease

Mitral valve disease

Aortic valve disease


Dilated cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Heart failure

Heart failure

Cor pulmonale

Cardiac infections



Rheumatic heart disease

Pericardial disorders

Pericarditis and pericardial effusion

Cardiac tamponade

Dressler syndrome

Cardiac tumors

Cardiac tumors

Cardiovascular system pathology review

Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Pathology review

Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review

Valvular heart disease: Pathology review

Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review

Heart failure: Pathology review

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review

Pericardial disease: Pathology review

Endocarditis: Pathology review

Hypertension: Pathology review

Shock: Pathology review

Vasculitis: Pathology review

Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review

Dyslipidemias: Pathology review


Vascular tumors


0 / 13 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 7 complete

High Yield Notes

5 pages


Vascular tumors

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 58-year-old Caucasian man comes to the office because of dull abdominal pain and nausea for the past 2 months. The pain is located at the right side of the abdomen, and the patient rates it 4/10 in intensity. The patient has worked as an engineer in a PVC pipe factory for the past 35 years. Medical history is relevant for hypertension, obesity, and recent travel to China. His temperature is 37.0°C (98.6°F), pulse is 80/min, and blood pressure is 135/85 mmHg. Physical examination shows pale skin and conjunctiva, hepatomegaly, and shifting dullness to percussion. Abdominal computed tomography reveals a hypoattenuating, solitary mass with nodular enhancement in the liver. Immunostaining is positive for CD31. Serum alpha-fetoprotein is 8 ng/mL (normal value <10 ng/mL). Serology is negative for hepatitis B and C. Which of the following is the most likely cause for this patient’s presentation?  

Memory Anchors and Partner Content

External References

First Aid






HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) p. 175

Kaposi sarcoma p. 165, 478

Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) p. 165, 177

Kaposi sarcoma p. 478

Kaposi sarcoma p. 478

AIDS and p. 184

bacillary angiomatosis vs p. 478

HHV p. --13, 165

HIV-positive adults p. 177

IFN- αfor p. 204

oncogenic microbes and p. 226

Skin lesions

Kaposi sarcoma p. 165


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Vincent Waldman, PhD

Vascular tumors are tumors of the blood vessels, and there actually a lot of different types, so this is just a quick overview of three types of tumors: Kaposi sarcoma, hemangioma, and angiosarcoma. Kaposi sarcoma is a malignant vascular tumor that is linked with an infection of the human herpesvirus 8 (otherwise known as HHV-8). And it’s a cancer of the blood vessel endothelial cells. This virus is thought to get inside of the cells, and cause the cells to replicate uncontrollably. This type of cancer is seen in people who have suppressed immune systems. That’s why it’s one of the common diseases you’re at risk of getting if you have AIDS, and is a complication of organ transplant patients.

The most common symptoms of Kaposi sarcoma affect the skin, causing purple and red lesions. These lesions look somewhat like a bruise, but unlike a bruise they don’t blanch, or turn pale, when pressed. That’s because a Kaposi sarcoma has blood filled blood vessels whereas bruises are caused by blood leaking outside of blood vessels into the skin. Initially these lesions start off flat, but over time they may become raised and more painful. In people who have a compromised immune systems, the disease can also cause lesions in other tissues like the mouth, the nose, the throat, the lymph nodes, the lungs, and the gastrointestinal tract.

You can sometimes treat affected skin by surgically removing it or freezing it using cryotherapy, however treating the disease in immunocompromised patients is a little more difficult. If someone’s immune system is compromised because of drugs such as corticosteroids, it might be necessary to adjust immunosuppressants and allow the immune system to recover. It’s a lot harder to treat the disease in an AIDS patient whose immune system is severely compromised, so antiretroviral therapy is commonly used by patients to restore immunity. Radiation and chemotherapy are also treatment options.


Vascular tumors are growths that develop in blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. These tumors can be benign or malignant. The most common types of benign vascular tumors are hemangiomas, which typically form in infancy and childhood and often resolve on their own over time. Malignant vascular tumors include angiosarcomas, which can occur in any part of the body, and Kaposi's sarcoma, which is typically seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. Treatment for vascular tumors depends on the type, location, and size of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the individual. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.


  1. "Robbins Basic Pathology" Elsevier (2017)
  2. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Twentieth Edition (Vol.1 & Vol.2)" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  3. "Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine 8E" McGraw-Hill Education / Medical (2018)
  4. "Kaposi Sarcoma" Archives of Pathology &amp; Laboratory Medicine (2013)
  5. "Hemangioendothelioma" Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology (2013)
  6. "Angiosarcoma: clinical and imaging features from head to toe" The British Journal of Radiology (2017)

Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.