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Coronary steal syndrome
Peripheral artery disease
Subclavian steal syndrome
Renal artery stenosis
Coarctation of the aorta
Polycystic kidney disease
Chronic venous insufficiency
Deep vein thrombosis
Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma)
Transposition of the great vessels
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Tetralogy of Fallot
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Patent ductus arteriosus
Ventricular septal defect
Coarctation of the aorta
Atrial septal defect
Premature atrial contraction
Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)
Premature ventricular contraction
Long QT syndrome and Torsade de pointes
Bundle branch block
Pulseless electrical activity
Tricuspid valve disease
Pulmonary valve disease
Mitral valve disease
Aortic valve disease
Rheumatic heart disease
Pericarditis and pericardial effusion
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis: Pathology review
Coronary artery disease: Pathology review
Peripheral artery disease: Pathology review
Valvular heart disease: Pathology review
Cardiomyopathies: Pathology review
Heart failure: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Heart blocks: Pathology review
Aortic dissections and aneurysms: Pathology review
Pericardial disease: Pathology review
Endocarditis: Pathology review
Hypertension: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Vasculitis: Pathology review
Cardiac and vascular tumors: Pathology review
Dyslipidemias: Pathology review
0 / 80 complete
0 / 10 complete
autoantibody p. 113
as granulomatous disease p. NaN
labs/findings p. 721
Tanner Marshall, MSVincent Waldman, PhD
With vasculitis, you have “inflammation”, of the “blood vessels”, and even though this can happen in arteries or veins, we’re going to focus on vasculitis in arteries because it’s way more common.
Vasculitides—plural for vasculitis—are categorized by the size of the blood vessels they affect, so we have small-vessel, medium-vessel, and large-vessel vasculitis.
Typically vasculitis is due to an autoimmune disease, where the immune system confuses a part of normal body as a foreign invader, and there are a couple of ways this might happen.
Sometimes the body confuses the innermost layer of the blood vessel, which is the endothelial layer, with a foreign pathogen and directly attacks it.
To be a little bit more specific, the white blood cells of the immune system mix up the normal antigens on the endothelial cells with the antigens of foreign invaders like bacteria simply because they look similar—and this is called molecular mimicry.
This autoimmune confusion is thought to be the cause several types of medium-vessel and large-vessel vasculitides.
Other times the immune system attacks healthy cells that are near the vascular endothelium, and the endothelial cells are only getting indirectly damaged.
This is the situation in many small-vessel vasculitides, where the immune system attacks white blood cell enzymes or other non-endothelial cell targets.
Once the endothelium is damaged either directly or indirectly, almost all vasculitis diseases progress in a similar way.
The damaged endothelium exposes the underlying collagen and tissue factor, and these exposed materials increase the chance of blood coagulation.
The blood vessel walls themselves get weaker as they’re more damaged, making aneurysms more likely.
And finally as the vessel wall heals, it becomes harder and stiffer because fibrin is deposited into the vessel walls as part of the healing process.
And actually, that’s vasculitis in a nutshell.
Vasculitis is a condition in which there is inflammation of the blood vessels, typically caused by immune-mediated damage to the endothelial cells. The inflammation can affect blood vessels of different sizes, ranging from small capillaries to larger arteries and veins. There are many different types of vasculitis, which can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, joints, and internal organs.
Symptoms may include fever, fatigue, weight loss, joint pain, skin rashes, and organ dysfunction, depending on the type and location of the vasculitis. Treatment for vasculitis may involve medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids.
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