Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)


00:00 / 00:00



Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)

Medical and surgical emergencies

Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Advanced cardiac life support (ACLS): Clinical (To be retired)

Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review

Heart blocks: Pathology review

Coronary artery disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Heart failure: Clinical (To be retired)

Syncope: Clinical (To be retired)

Pericardial disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Valvular heart disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Chest trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Shock: Clinical (To be retired)

Peripheral vascular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Leg ulcers: Clinical (To be retired)

Aortic aneurysms and dissections: Clinical (To be retired)

Cholinomimetics: Direct agonists

Cholinomimetics: Indirect agonists (anticholinesterases)

Muscarinic antagonists

Sympathomimetics: Direct agonists

Sympatholytics: Alpha-2 agonists

Adrenergic antagonists: Presynaptic

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Adrenergic antagonists: Beta blockers

ACE inhibitors, ARBs and direct renin inhibitors

Loop diuretics

Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics

Calcium channel blockers

cGMP mediated smooth muscle vasodilators

Class I antiarrhythmics: Sodium channel blockers

Class II antiarrhythmics: Beta blockers

Class III antiarrhythmics: Potassium channel blockers

Class IV antiarrhythmics: Calcium channel blockers and others

Positive inotropic medications

Antiplatelet medications

Dermatology and plastic surgery

Blistering skin disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Bites and stings: Clinical (To be retired)

Burns: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Diabetes mellitus: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperthyroidism: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypothyroidism and thyroiditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Parathyroid conditions and calcium imbalance: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenal insufficiency: Clinical (To be retired)

Neck trauma: Clinical (To be retired)


Mineralocorticoids and mineralocorticoid antagonists


Gastroenterology and general surgery

Abdominal pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Appendicitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Clinical (To be retired)

Peptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical (To be retired)

Inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Diverticular disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Gallbladder disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Pancreatitis: Clinical (To be retired)

Cirrhosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Hernias: Clinical (To be retired)

Bowel obstruction: Clinical (To be retired)

Abdominal trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Laxatives and cathartics


Acid reducing medications

Hematology and oncology

Blood products and transfusion: Clinical (To be retired)

Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)

Anticoagulants: Heparin

Anticoagulants: Warfarin

Anticoagulants: Direct factor inhibitors

Antiplatelet medications


Infectious diseases

Fever of unknown origin: Clinical (To be retired)

Infective endocarditis: Clinical (To be retired)

Pneumonia: Clinical (To be retired)

Tuberculosis: Pathology review

Diarrhea: Clinical (To be retired)

Urinary tract infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscesses: Clinical (To be retired)

Bites and stings: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides

Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim

Antituberculosis medications

Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors

Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins

Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors

Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole

DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones

Herpesvirus medications



Miscellaneous antifungal medications

Anthelmintic medications


Anti-mite and louse medications

Nephrology and urology

Hypernatremia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyponatremia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hyperkalemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Hypokalemia: Clinical (To be retired)

Metabolic and respiratory acidosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Metabolic and respiratory alkalosis: Clinical (To be retired)

Toxidromes: Clinical (To be retired)

Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review

Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review

Acute kidney injury: Clinical (To be retired)

Kidney stones: Clinical (To be retired)

Adrenergic antagonists: Alpha blockers

Neurology and neurosurgery

Stroke: Clinical (To be retired)

Seizures: Clinical (To be retired)

Headaches: Clinical (To be retired)

Traumatic brain injury: Clinical (To be retired)

Neck trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Lower back pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Spinal cord disorders: Pathology review

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates

Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines

Nonbenzodiazepine anticonvulsants

Migraine medications

Osmotic diuretics

Antiplatelet medications


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Opioid antagonists

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Asthma: Clinical (To be retired)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Clinical (To be retired)

Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Clinical (To be retired)

Pleural effusion: Clinical (To be retired)

Pneumothorax: Clinical (To be retired)

Chest trauma: Clinical (To be retired)

Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists

Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Joint pain: Clinical (To be retired)

Anatomy clinical correlates: Clavicle and shoulder

Anatomy clinical correlates: Axilla

Anatomy clinical correlates: Arm, elbow and forearm

Anatomy clinical correlates: Wrist and hand

Anatomy clinical correlates: Median, ulnar and radial nerves

Anatomy clinical correlates: Bones, joints and muscles of the back

Anatomy clinical correlates: Hip, gluteal region and thigh

Anatomy clinical correlates: Knee

Anatomy clinical correlates: Leg and ankle

Anatomy clinical correlates: Foot

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Opioid agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists and partial agonists

Antigout medications


Venous thromboembolism: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 13 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 72-year-old man in acute distress, with an orthopaedic cast on his right leg, is brought into the emergency room with pleuritic chest pain and hemoptysis that started an hour ago, when he was sleeping at home. The patient fractured his right femur distally 6 weeks before, and has been bedridden ever since. The patient’s temperature is 36.5°C (97.8°F), pulse is 110/min, respirations are 28/min, blood pressure is 135/87 mm Hg, and pulse oximetry shows an oxygen saturation of 91.2%. In room air The patient’s ECG is normal. Which of the following is the most appropriate treatment?


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Our bodies are constantly maintaining a fine balance between making and breaking blood clots. In the late 1800s, doctor Rudolf Virchow identified three factors that contribute towards the formation of clots: hypercoagulability, stasis of the blood, and endothelial injury. If there’s any factor that tips the balance towards forming clots then a venous thromboembolism, or VTE can develop. VTE can cause two clinical presentations: deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, and pulmonary embolism, or PE. They are clumped together because they share the same pathophysiology, and often a DVT leads to a PE.

Risk factors for VTE revolve around Virchow’s triad, and can be remembered with the mnemonic “THROMBOSIS”: “T” is for trauma or history of travel. “H” is for hospitalization and hormones, meaning any form of exogenous estrogen such as hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen or combined oral contraceptives, which promote the formation of clots in the venous circulation. “R” is for relatives, that is family history of inherited hypercoagulable disorders, like Factor V Leiden. “O” is for old age. “M” is for having any malignancy. “B” is for long bone fractures. “O” is for obesity and obstetrics; that is pregnancy and the early post-partum period. “S” is for any form of major surgery, especially orthopedic surgery as well as smoking. “I” is for immobilization, such as a paralyzed limb. And the final “S” is for other sickness, like antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Alright, now DVTs usually involve the deep veins of the lower extremity, such as the proximal iliac and femoral veins, or the distal popliteal veins. Upper extremity DVTs are very rare, and if they do happen, it’s usually because of an indwelling intravascular catheter. Now, individuals with DVT usually develop a swollen, red and painful unilateral limb. That sounds nonspecific, so it’s important to differentiate DVT from superficial thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, lymphedema, and Baker cysts. On physical exam, a great telltale sign of DVT is a large calf diameter relative to the unaffected leg. A commonly taught finding is the Homan’s sign; which is calf pain on passive dorsiflexion of the foot, but this finding is unreliable. The rare but severe presentations of DVT have latin names - phlegmasia cerulea dolens, which translates to a painful blue swelling, and phlegmasia alba dolens, which translates to painful white swelling. Painful blue swelling can occur due to massive iliofemoral thrombosis, which causes severe venous congestion in the affected limb. Painful white swelling can occur due to a massive thrombosis that gets so big that it compresses nearby arteries, causing the leg to become pale due to arterial insufficiency and ischemia.



Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.