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Renal tubular acidosis
Minimal change disease
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (NORD)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy (NORD)
Acute tubular necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis
Renal cortical necrosis
Chronic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease
Multicystic dysplastic kidney
Medullary cystic kidney disease
Medullary sponge kidney
Renal artery stenosis
Renal cell carcinoma
Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor)
Posterior urethral valves
Hypospadias and epispadias
Lower urinary tract infection
Transitional cell carcinoma
Non-urothelial bladder cancers
Congenital renal disorders: Pathology review
Renal tubular defects: Pathology review
Renal tubular acidosis: Pathology review
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Urinary incontinence: Pathology review
Urinary tract infections: Pathology review
Kidney stones: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
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Tanner Marshall, MSVincent Waldman, PhD
Vesico refers to bladder and ureteral refers to the ureter - so vesicoureteral reflux means that urine is refluxing or getting backed up.
Normally, urine flows in one direction - it starts in the kidneys, goes down into the bladder and when the bladder is full, urine flows out of the body through the urethra.
In vesicoureteral reflux, there is some obstruction in that path which causes pressure to build up and a current of urine actually pushes backward from the bladder into the ureters and kidneys.
There are two types of vesicoureteral reflux, or VUR. Primary vesicoureteral reflux is the most common type and happens when a child is born with a defect at the ureterovesical junction, which is the spot where the ureter enters the bladder, which also acts as a valve preventing urine from pushing back from the bladder into the ureter.
Normally about two centimeters of the ureter sticks into the bladder wall, allowing urine to flow into the bladder, but as the bladder fills up and stretches, it also stretches that section of the ureter and presses it against the top of the bladder, causing the ureter to close shut.
If the tube isn’t long enough though, that small piece of the ureter doesn’t stretch very much, and it stays open even when the bladder fills with urine. In that situation, as the bladder pressure builds with more urine, it starts to go back up the ureters.
Vesicoureteral reflux is a condition where the pressure in the urinary outflow tract increases and urine gets pushed back up into the ureters or kidneys. There are two types of vesicoureteral reflux: primary and secondary.
Primary vesicoureteral reflux is the most common type and happens when a child is born with a defect at the ureterovesical junction, which acts as a valve preventing urine from pushing back from the bladder into the ureter. Secondary vesicoureteral reflux is caused by an acquired condition or disease that causes a blockage in the urinary tract.
The disease often leads to urinary tract infections that can cause renal inflammation and scarring. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include antibiotics to prevent infections and surgery to correct the reflux.
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