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The vertebral column is important for protecting the spinal cord, as well as providing structural support, flexibility, and range of motion to our bodies. To maintain all of these important functions, our vertebral column requires an adequate blood supply and innervation.
Anterior vertebral canal branches follow the surface of the vertebral body anteriorly within the vertebral canal. Here, these arteries send nutrient branches that supply the red marrow of the vertebral body.
The vertebral column is supplied by a complex network of vessels and nerves. Its arterial supply comes from multiple sources, including the periosteal, equatorial, and spinal branches of major cervical arteries like the vertebral, ascending cervical, and deep cervical arteries. Additionally, segmental arteries like the intercostal, lumbar, and sacral arteries also contribute to the arterial supply of the vertebral column. Venous blood drains into the internal and external vertebral venous plexuses. The majority of the vertebral column is innervated by the recurrent meningeal nerves, except the facet joints, which are innervated by the articular branches of the medial branches of the posterior rami of spinal nerves.
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