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Body fluid compartments
Movement of water between body compartments
Acid-base disturbances: Pathology review
Diabetes insipidus and SIADH: Pathology review
Electrolyte disturbances: Pathology review
Renal failure: Pathology review
Acyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Adrenal masses: Pathology review
Bacterial and viral skin infections: Pathology review
Bone tumors: Pathology review
Coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Congenital neurological disorders: Pathology review
Cyanotic congenital heart defects: Pathology review
Extrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Inflammation, infections and trauma: Pathology review
Eye conditions: Refractive errors, lens disorders and glaucoma: Pathology review
Headaches: Pathology review
Intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Leukemias: Pathology review
Lymphomas: Pathology review
Macrocytic anemia: Pathology review
Microcytic anemia: Pathology review
Mixed platelet and coagulation disorders: Pathology review
Nasal, oral and pharyngeal diseases: Pathology review
Nephritic syndromes: Pathology review
Nephrotic syndromes: Pathology review
Non-hemolytic normocytic anemia: Pathology review
Pediatric brain tumors: Pathology review
Pediatric musculoskeletal disorders: Pathology review
Platelet disorders: Pathology review
Renal and urinary tract masses: Pathology review
Seizures: Pathology review
Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review
Adrenal insufficiency: Pathology review
Central nervous system infections: Pathology review
Childhood and early-onset psychological disorders: Pathology review
Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review
Diabetes mellitus: Pathology review
Environmental and chemical toxicities: Pathology review
Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review
GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review
Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review
Medication overdoses and toxicities: Pathology review
Obstructive lung diseases: Pathology review
Pneumonia: Pathology review
Psychiatric emergencies: Pathology review
Shock: Pathology review
Supraventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Traumatic brain injury: Pathology review
Ventricular arrhythmias: Pathology review
Congenital TORCH infections: Pathology review
Jaundice: Pathology review
Respiratory distress syndrome: Pathology review
Autosomal trisomies: Pathology review
Cystic fibrosis: Pathology review
Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review
HIV and AIDS: Pathology review
Miscellaneous genetic disorders: Pathology review
Papulosquamous and inflammatory skin disorders: Pathology review
Anxiety disorders, phobias and stress-related disorders: Pathology Review
Developmental and learning disorders: Pathology review
Eating disorders: Pathology review
Mood disorders: Pathology review
Pharmacodynamics: Agonist, partial agonist and antagonist
Pharmacodynamics: Desensitization and tolerance
Pharmacodynamics: Drug-receptor interactions
Pharmacokinetics: Drug absorption and distribution
Pharmacokinetics: Drug elimination and clearance
Pharmacokinetics: Drug metabolism
Androgens and antiandrogens
Estrogens and antiestrogens
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
Antihistamines for allergies
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Bronchodilators: Beta 2-agonists and muscarinic antagonists
Bronchodilators: Leukotriene antagonists and methylxanthines
Pulmonary corticosteroids and mast cell inhibitors
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Barbiturates
Anticonvulsants and anxiolytics: Benzodiazepines
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Erythema Infectiosum (Fifths Disease)
Exanthema Subitum (Roseola Infantum)
A 1 year old boy named Adam is brought to the pediatric clinic by his mother, who is concerned because Adam developed a pink skin rash that began in the trunk and has now spread to the extremities.
On physical examination, the rash appears to be maculopapular. Upon further questioning, she recalls that Adam had a high fever for the past few days, and the rash appeared after the fever went down.
Next you see Rose, a 9 year old girl who came in with her father, due to a very itchy rash all over her body. Her father claims that the rash started 2 days ago after having a mild fever, and that several of Rose’s schoolmates also have the same rash.
Upon physical examination, you notice that the rash involves her face, trunk, and extremities, and presents with different types of lesions, including papules, vesicles, and crusts.
Now, based on the initial presentation, both Adam and Rose seem to have a viral exanthem of childhood, which is a group of eruptive skin rashes caused by viral infection and usually affect children.
Generally, viral exanthems can be macular, papular, maculopapular, or vesicular. A macular rash has macules, which are up to 5 mm in diameter, and completely flat, meaning that you can’t feel them if you run your finger over them.
On the other hand, a papular rash has papules, which are raised bumps that are up to 1 cm in diameter. And a maculopapular has both macules and papules.
Finally, a vesicular rash has vesicles, which are up to 5 mm in diameter, and look like clear blisters filled with fluid. Viral exanthems of childhood include varicella; hand-foot-mouth disease; roseola infantum; measles; rubella; and erythema infectiosum.
Alright, now one of the most common viral exanthems is varicella, more commonly referred to as chickenpox. It is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, or VZV for short, which is a DNA virus, and is also known as human herpesvirus 3 or HHV-3, as it belongs to the Herpesviridae family.
Now, this is a highly contagious airborne virus, meaning it’s transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets; for example, when an infected person sneezes or coughs.
Viral exanthems of childhood are skin rashes that often affect children, and include varicella, hand-foot-mouth disease, roseola infantum, measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum. Each has distinct symptoms and is caused by a different virus.
Varicella or chickenpox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It causes flu-like symptoms and a vesicular rash that spreads to the extremities and face. Measles caused by the measles virus leads to a high fever and a maculopapular rash that spreads in a cephalocaudal progression. There is also rubella caused by the rubella virus, which leads to flu-like symptoms and a maculopapular rash that spreads cephalocaudally, and can be transmitted by a pregnant individual to the fetus via the placenta.
Next is Hand-foot-mouth disease caused by the virus Coxsackievirus group A, which results in flu-like symptoms followed by a vesicular rash that begins in the mouth. Roseola infantum, which is human herpesvirus 6, presents with a high fever and a rose-colored maculopapular rash. There is also Erythema infectiosum caused by parvovirus B19, which presents with flu-like symptoms and a characteristic "slapped-cheek" rash, and can cause anemia in individuals with certain blood disorders or fetal anemia if contracted during pregnancy.
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