Vitamin K deficiency is a form of avitaminosis resulting from insufficient vitamin K1 or vitamin K2 or both. It can develop as a result of low vitamin K stores, a sterile gut, gestational use of coumarin-like anticoagulants, chronic use of antibiotics, and prolonged diarrhea. Symptoms include bruising, petechiae, hematomas, oozing of blood at surgical or puncture sites, stomach pains, risk of massive uncontrolled bleeding, cartilage calcification, and severe malformation of developing bone or deposition of insoluble calcium salts in the walls of arteries. In infants, it can cause some birth defects such as an underdeveloped face, nose, bones, and fingers. Treatment involves administration of vitamin K, as well as intake of vitamin K-rich foods.