Adenoviridae Notes

Contents

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Adenoviridae essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Adenoviridae by visiting the associated Learn Page.
NOTES NOTES ADENOVIRIDAE ADENOVIRUS osms.it/adenovirus PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Seven subgroups, 52 serotypes ▪ Directly invades human epithelial cells (several organs) → multiple cytopathic effects, usually within 2–7 days postinfection ▪ Responsible for variety of upper, lower respiratory tract; gastrointestinal; genitourinary infections ▪ Common clinical syndromes ▫ Upper respiratory disease, pharyngoconjunctival fever, coryza, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, hemorrhagic cystitis, interstitial nephritis, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis Genetic material ▪ Double-stranded DNA virus Taxonomy ▪ Adenoviridae family Morphology ▪ Non-enveloped icosahedral nucleocapsid ▪ Unique ▫ Fiber-like projections (hemagglutinins) protrude from capsid’s 12 vertices Transmission ▪ Aerosol droplets ▪ Fecal-oral route ▪ Neonates ▫ Infected cervical secretion exposure ▪ Solid organ transplant 308 OSMOSIS.ORG ▪ Fomite contact ▫ Survives on environmental surfaces for long periods; inactivated by heat, formaldehyde, bleach RISK FACTORS ▪ Close living space (e.g. military barracks, daycare centers) ▪ Summer camps (especially with swimming pools/lakes) ▪ Healthcare facilities ▪ Immunocompromised status (especially cell-mediated immunity deficiency) COMPLICATIONS ▪ Secondary bacterial infection; meningoencephalitis; myocarditis; disseminated intravascular coagulation; myositis, rhabdomyolysis; hypogammaglobulinemia ▪ Disseminated adenovirus infection ▫ Affects multiple organs, immunocompromised individuals especially; high mortality rate SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Varies with clinical syndrome ▪ Upper respiratory ▫ Sore throat, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, dry cough, hoarseness, inflamed tonsils, cervical lymphadenopathy; wheezes/rhonchi on auscultation
Chapter 54 Adenoviridae ▪ Ocular ▫ Conjunctivitis, preauricular, lymphadenopathy ▪ Gastrointestinal ▫ Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea ▪ Systemic ▫ Fever, malaise, headache, myalgia DIAGNOSIS ▪ History, physical examination ▫ Characteristic findings ▫ Diagnostic test choice based on clinical presentation DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Chest X-ray ▪ May show diffuse bilateral pulmonary mononuclear cell infiltration, hyaline membranes, necrosis LAB RESULTS Microbe identification ▪ Viral culture (e.g. nasopharyngeal swabs, blood, urine, sputum) ▪ Viral assay (e.g. adenovirus-specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA)/ immunofluorescence assay) ▪ Nucleotide amplification test (NAT) ▪ Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Serology ▪ Antigen/complement fixation assays ▪ Hemagglutination inhibition/neutralizing antibodies ▪ Restriction endonuclease (RE) analysis Tissue biopsy ▪ Eosinophilic inclusions (early stage) ▪ Basophilic inclusion surrounded by clear intranuclear inclusion Electron microscopy ▪ Icosahedral virions forming intranuclear paracrystalline aggregates TREATMENT ▪ Usually self-limiting disease MEDICATIONS Pharmacotherapy ▪ Immunocompromised/severe infection individuals ▫ Antivirals, immunoglobulin (IVIG) Prevention ▪ Infection control measures ▪ Live oral enteric-coated vaccine used for military recruits only OSMOSIS.ORG 309

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Adenoviridae essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Adenoviridae by visiting the associated Learn Page.