Anxiety disorders Notes

Contents

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Anxiety disorders essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Anxiety disorders:

Agoraphobia

Generalized anxiety disorder

Panic disorder

Phobias

Social anxiety disorder

NOTES NOTES ANXIETY DISORDERS GENERALLY, WHAT ARE THEY? PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Mental disorders characterized by excessive, unreasonable fear, distress ▪ May be omnipresent/in response to particular stimulus ▪ Awareness of condition often causes more distress CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental ▪ Often associated with other mental disorders (mood, substance-related) SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Persistent fear/distress ▪ Nausea, difficulty sleeping, headache DIAGNOSIS ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Excessive, unreasonable fear/distress Struggle to control symptoms Lasts > six months Affects day-to-day functioning Not explained by other condition/substance TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), other antidepressants, benzodiazepines PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy ▫ Identify, explain thoughts/feelings, change flawed ones ▫ Better long-term prognosis; no side effects, no dependency OSMOSIS.ORG 689
AGORAPHOBIA osms.it/agoraphobia PATHOLOGY & CAUSES DIAGNOSIS ▪ Fear, avoidance of public places ▪ Individuals refuse to leave “safety” of home ▪ Unreasonable fear/anxiety associated with public places ▪ Caused by underlying fear of feeling trapped, unable to receive help ▪ Resulting avoidance of public places ▪ Lasts > six months ▪ Distress affects day-to-day functioning ▪ Not explained by other condition/substance CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental ▪ Associated with other anxiety disorders, e.g. panic disorder SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Fast heartbeat, dizziness, trembling ▪ Thinking about/avoidance of public places causes distress TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs, benzodiazepines PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, systematic desensitization Figure 90.1 Illustration showing how other disorders can lead to agoraphobia. If someone with panic disorder has panic attacks outside frequently, they may develop agoraphobia and avoid going outdoors altogether. 690 OSMOSIS.ORG
Chapter 90 Anxiety Disorders GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER osms.it/generalized-anxiety-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Excessive, unreasonable, persistent fear, distress CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental; higher in some groups ▪ Associated with depressive disorders SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Restlessness, difficulty concentrating, irritability ▪ Muscle tension (→ aching and soreness), fatigue, insomnia (→ chronic fatigue) DIAGNOSIS ▪ Excessive, unreasonable anxiety ▪ Struggle to control anxiety ▪ Persistent fear/distress, nausea, difficulty sleeping, headache ▪ > three symptoms listed above (children > one year old) ▪ Lasts > six months ▪ Distress affects day-to-day functioning ▪ Not explained by other condition/substance TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs, antidepressants, benzodiazepines PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy Figure 90.2 Illustration of the different levels of anxiety. OSMOSIS.ORG 691
PANIC DISORDER osms.it/panic-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES DIAGNOSIS ▪ Recurrent panic attacks → sudden periods of intense fear/discomfort ▪ Attacks unpredictable ▪ Recurrent, unpredictable panic attacks (> two) ▪ Distress affects day-to-day functioning ▪ Behavioral changes to avoid further attacks ▪ Presence of > four symptoms ▪ Not explained by other condition/substance CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental; higher in some groups ▪ Associated with major depressive disorder, social and generalized anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Feelings of choking, derealization, fear of losing control/dying ▪ Elevated heart rate, chest pain/discomfort, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness, chills, numbness TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs and other antidepressants, benzodiazepines ▪ Antiseizure medications PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy Figure 90.3 Illustration showing possible causes for panic disorder, and avenues to treatment. 692 OSMOSIS.ORG
Chapter 90 Anxiety Disorders PHOBIAS osms.it/phobia PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Excessive, unreasonable, persistent fear resulting in avoidance of particular object/ situations (phobic stimulus) TYPES ▪ As listed in the DSM-5 ▫ Fear of animals ▫ Fear of natural environment ▫ Fear of blood, needles ▫ Situational fears ▫ “Other” fears (AKA none of the above) CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental ▪ Associated with anxiety, mood, substance use disorders DIAGNOSIS ▪ Unreasonable fear/anxiety associated with phobic stimulus ▪ Resulting avoidance (which may itself cause distress) of phobic stimulus ▪ Lasts > six months ▪ Distress affects day-to-day functioning ▪ Not explained by other condition/substance TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs, benzodiazepines PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, systematic desensitization SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Response to phobic stimulus: elevated heartbeat, dizziness, trembling ▪ Excessive thinking about/avoidance of phobic stimulus causes distress Figure 90.4 Illustration of different specific phobias making someone feel powerless. OSMOSIS.ORG 693
SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER osms.it/separation-anxiety-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES DIAGNOSIS ▪ Excessive, unreasonable, persistent fear of being separated from individual/location ▪ Excessive, unreasonable, persistent fear of being separated from individual/location ▪ Adults: lasts > six months ▪ Children: lasts > four weeks ▪ Not explained by other condition/substance CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental ▪ Associated with all other anxiety disorders SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Distress caused by thought of experiencing separation ▪ Nightmares, headaches, nausea TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs, benzodiazepines PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER osms.it/social-anxiety-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Excessive, unreasonable, persistent fear of being judged ▪ Avoidance of social situations CAUSES ▪ May be genetic, environmental; higher in some groups ▪ Associated with mood disorders, substance-related disorders, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders 694 OSMOSIS.ORG SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Trembling, blushing, derealization ▪ Excessive thinking about/avoidance of social situations/circumstances, associated distress DIAGNOSIS ▪ Excessive, unreasonable, persistent fear of being judged ▪ Avoidance of social situations/ circumstances, associated distress ▪ Fear of others judging anxious feelings ▪ Lasts > six months ▪ Distress affects day-to-day functioning ▪ Not explained by other condition/substance
Chapter 90 Anxiety Disorders TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs, antidepressants, benzodiazepines PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy Figure 90.5 Illustration of the possible causes of social anxiety disorder, which are still unclear, as well as the DSM-5’s criteria for a diagnosis of the condition. OSMOSIS.ORG 695

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Anxiety disorders essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Anxiety disorders by visiting the associated Learn Page.