Bladder pathology Notes
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This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Bladder pathology essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Bladder pathology:
NOTES NOTES BLADDER PATHOLOGY NEUROGENIC BLADDER osms.it/neurogenic-bladder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Impaired control of bladder emptying due to nerve damage ▪ Bladder ﬁlls → damaged S2-S3 nerves → impaired signal transmission, lack of voluntary control → incontinence Overﬂow incontinence ▪ Bladder reaches maximum capacity, releases urine involuntarily all at once ▪ Results from impaired capacity to detect bladder ﬁlling Urge incontinence ▪ Small amount of urine initiates micturition reﬂex involuntarily ▪ Results from impaired capacity to inhibit micturition reﬂex CAUSES Overﬂow incontinence ▪ Diabetes mellitus (most common); ischemic, metabolic, endothelial damage ▪ Syphilis → tabes dorsalis; inﬂammation, scarring of dorsal root nerves ▪ Herpesvirus → latent in dorsal nerve roots ▪ Spinal injury → micturition center (S2-S3 level) affected ▫ Once shock resolves → normal micturition reﬂex ▫ May also lead to urge incontinence; impaired transmission of inhibitory signal for micturition reﬂex Urge incontinence ▪ Multiple sclerosis (MS) → autoimmune damage to nerve myelin sheath in S2-S3 level in spinal cord ▪ Spinal shock ▪ Stroke ▪ Chronic processes affecting central nervous system (CNS): Parkinson’s disease, brain tumor RISK FACTORS ▪ Any disease affecting central, peripheral nervous system ▫ Diabetes, syphilis, herpes, spinal birth defects, spinal cord injuries, stroke, traumas COMPLICATIONS ▪ Rashes/skin infections ▪ Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Depends on nerves damaged, extension ▪ Urge, overﬂow incontinence OSMOSIS.ORG 781
DIAGNOSIS LAB RESULTS ▪ Post-voiding residual measuring: amount of urine in bladder after urination ▪ Pressure, ﬂow of urine measurements TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Urge incontinence: anticholinergic drugs to relax detrusor muscle OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Overﬂow incontinence: catheter to drain urine Figure 109.1 Illustration of syphilis and herpes viruses attacking the nerves of the bladder, which ultimately leads to overﬂow incontinence. Figure 109.2 Illustration of causes of overﬂow incontinence. Spinal injuries can temporarily impair bladder functioning, while chronic conditions affecting the nervous system, like Parkinson’s disease, have more permanent effects. 782 OSMOSIS.ORG
Osmosis High-Yield Notes
This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Bladder pathology essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Bladder pathology by visiting the associated Learn Page.