Cardiac tumors Notes

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Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Cardiac tumors essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Cardiac tumors by visiting the associated Learn Page.
NOTES NOTES CARDIAC TUMORS GENERALLY, WHAT ARE THEY? PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Abnormal cell growth forms mass in heart TYPES Primary ▪ Rare ▫ Adults: myxoma ▫ Children: rhabdomyoma Secondary ▪ More common than primary ▪ Metastases from cancer in other areas (lung cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, leukemia, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, colon cancer) ▫ Lymphogenous/hematogenous dissemination COMPLICATIONS ▪ Impaired left ventricular structure, filling, ejection caused by tumor ▪ Arrhythmias: tumor disrupts normal nodal/ septal electrical conduction ▪ Heart failure: tumor obstructs inflow/ outflow ▪ Recurrence of tumor after excision (if tumor not completely removed) ▪ Embolism, sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Asymptomatic ▫ Incidental finding on echocardiogram, MRI, CT scan ▪ Dyspnea ▫ Most common symptom ▫ Can progress to orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea ▪ “Tumor plop” sound upon auscultation with left atrial myxoma ▪ Syncope, presyncope, dizziness, chest pain/ tightness DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING ▪ MRI, CT scan, ultrasound ▫ Incidental finding ▫ See individual disorders ▪ 2D echocardiogram preferred procedure LAB RESULTS ▪ Histology conducted on biopsy via surgical excision/fine needle aspiration TREATMENT SURGERY ▪ Symptomatic: surgical resection OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Asymptomatic: monitor OSMOSIS.ORG 29
ATRIAL MYXOMA osms.it/atrial-myxoma PATHOLOGY & CAUSES SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ A benign heart tumor ▪ Most common primary cardiac tumor in adults ▪ Arises in heart’s mesenchymal connective tissue ▪ Most common in left atrium, may cause syncope ▫ Tumor in left atrium → obstructs mitral valve ▪ Histology ▫ Pedunculated (attached to tissue stalk) ▫ Gelatinous due to abundance of ground substance ▪ Asymptomatic: incidental finding on echocardiogram, MRI, CT scan ▪ Dyspnea: most common symptom ▫ Can progress to orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea ▪ “Tumor plop” sound upon auscultation with left atrial myxoma ▪ Syncope, presyncope, dizziness, chest pain/ tightness RISK FACTORS ▪ Age 40–60 ▪ More common in biological females ▫ Less pronounced in familial atrial myxoma ▪ Genetic disease DIAGNOSIS LAB RESULTS Histology ▪ Stellate myxoma cells in myxoid stroma of glycosaminoglycans TREATMENT SURGERY ▪ Symptomatic: resection OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Asymptomatic: monitor Figure 5.1 Surgically excised atrial myxoma. A small piece of myocardium marks the point of attachment. 30 OSMOSIS.ORG
Chapter 5 Cardiac Tumors Figure 5.2 Histological appearance of a myxoma with abundant mucoid matrix (pink background) and scanty, bland spindle cells with low mitotic activity. Figure 5.3 A sagittal CT scan demonstrating a myxoma in the left atrium. RHABDOMYOMA osms.it/rhabdomyoma PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Benign tumor of striated muscle ▪ Most common primary cardiac tumor in infants/children ▪ Arises in ventricles ▪ Presents congenitally ▪ Benign hamartoma (abnormal tissue formation) ▪ Association between rhabdomyoma/ tuberous sclerosis about 30–50% ▪ Often regresses spontaneously ▪ Shrink with age RISK FACTORS ▪ More common in children ▪ More common in biological males (2.4:1 male-female ratio) ▪ Average presentation age is four years old ▪ Associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ▪ Genetic disease DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING MRI, CT scan, ultrasound ▪ Incidental finding Ultrasound, MRI ▪ Visualize tumor LAB RESULTS Histology ▪ Hamartomatous growths surrounded in a glycogen-rich eosinophilic cytoplasm OSMOSIS.ORG 31
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Usually present at birth ▪ Tender, painful, benign, slow-growing nodules ▫ Common in neck/mouth/larynx, may cause breathing difficulties TREATMENT SURGERY ▪ Symptomatic: surgical resection Figure 5.4 A surgically excised rhabdomyoma. OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Asymptomatic: monitor Figure 5.5 Histological appearance of a rhabdomyoma composed of plump, pink skeletal muscle cells. 32 OSMOSIS.ORG

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Cardiac tumors essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Cardiac tumors by visiting the associated Learn Page.