Cardiomyopathy Notes


Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Cardiomyopathy essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Cardiomyopathy:

Dilated cardiomyopathy

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

NOTES NOTES CARDIOMYOPATHY GENERALLY, WHAT IS IT? DIAGNOSIS PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Broad term, describes any issue resulting from disease of myocardium ▪ Primary cardiomyopathy: issue develops of its own accord ▪ Secondary cardiomyopathy: issue develops as compensation for another underlying disease DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING ▪ Chest X-ray ▪ Echocardiogram/cardiac MRI OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ▪ ECG TREATMENT RISK FACTORS ▪ Positive family history COMPLICATIONS ▫ Heart failure, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Can be asymptomatic ▪ Heart failure signs, symptoms ▪ Heart murmurs MEDICATIONS ▪ See individual diseases SURGERY ▪ Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) ▪ Heart transplant OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Lifestyle changes OSMOSIS.ORG 33
DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Dilation of all four chambers of heart ▪ Most common type of cardiomyopathy ▫ New sarcomeres added in series, creates larger chambers with relatively weak walls, less muscle for contraction → low systolic function ▫ Chambers stretch → valves stretch → blood regurgitates back into atria CAUSES ▪ Primary dilated cardiomyopathy most often idiopathic Genetic mutations/conditions ▪ Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), hemochromatosis Myocarditis ▪ Can progress from myocarditis to dilated cardiomyopathy Infection ▪ Coxsackievirus B: leads to myocarditis, heart muscle inflammation ▪ Chagas disease: protozoal infection Linked to alcoholism ▪ Alcohol, metabolites have direct toxic effect on heart muscle Linked to certain drugs ▪ Chemotherapy: doxorubicin, daunorubicin ▪ Cocaine Wet beriberi ▪ Beriberi: illness caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency ▪ Wet beriberi: affects heart; ↓ thiamine levels impair myocardium energy production Peripartum cardiomyopathy ▪ Can develop in third trimester of pregnancy/ weeks after delivery 34 OSMOSIS.ORG ▫ Related to pregnancy-associated hypertension ▫ Half of individuals recover following pregnancy Sarcoidosis ▪ Growth of granulomas in heart → dilation RISK FACTORS ▪ Alcoholism, past family history of diseases implicated in DMD COMPLICATIONS ▪ Systolic heart failure ▫ Valve regurgitation: as chambers stretch, so do valves ▪ Arrhythmias: stretching muscle irritates conduction system MNEMONIC: ID BIG MAPS Causes of Dilated Cardiomyopathy Idiopathic Drugs/Doxorubicin (and cocaine) Beriberi (wet) Infection Genetic Myocarditis Alcoholism Peripartum cardiomyopathy Sarcoidosis
Chapter 6 Cardiomyopathy TREATMENT SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Fatigue, dyspnea ▪ Lateral displaced point of maximum impulse (PMI) ▪ Chest pain on exertion ▪ Holosystolic murmur (mitral valve regurgitation during systole) ▪ S3 sound (blood rushing into, slamming into dilated ventricular wall during diastole) DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING X-ray ▪ Cardiomegaly, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion MEDICATIONS ▪ Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, angiotensin receptor blocker, beta blocker ▫ Slows disease progression SURGERY ▪ Heart transplant (extreme cases) OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Left ventricular assist device (LVAD): mechanical pump assists heart in delivering blood to body OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ECG ▪ Shows ventricular dilation, reduced ejection fraction Figure 6.1 Gross pathology of dilated cardiomyopathy. Note the large ventricles and thin ventricular walls. Figure 6.2 A chest radiograph demonstrating enlargement of the heart due to dilated cardiomyopathy. The heart occupies more than half the width of the chest. OSMOSIS.ORG 35
HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY (HCM) PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Myocardium becomes thick, heavy, hypercontractile ▪ Myocytes become disorganized, new sarcomeres added in parallel to existing ones ▪ Left ventricle most often affected ▫ Muscle growth asymmetrical → interventricular septum grows larger relative to free wall ▪ Hypertrophy → walls taking up more space, ↓ blood fills ventricle ▫ Walls become stiff, less compliant → less filling → low stroke volume → dysfunction in diastolic filling of left ventricle → diastolic heart failure ▪ Arrhythmias: larger muscles require more oxygen, coupled with heart having difficulty delivering blood to tissues → ischemia → arrhythmias CAUSES Genetic missense mutation, inherited as autosomal dominant trait ▪ Different genetic mutations affect different sarcomere proteins ▪ Friedreich’s ataxia: autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (subtype) ▪ Interventricular septum growth blocks left ventricular outflow tract during systole → blood must flow quickly through small opening, ↓ pressure in this area ( Venturi effect) → low pressure pulls anterior leaflet of mitral valve toward septum → further mitral valve obstruction towards septum → further obstruction overall 36 OSMOSIS.ORG COMPLICATIONS ▪ Arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death RISK FACTORS ▪ Positive family history of HCM/conditions known to be associated with HCM (e.g. Friedreich’s ataxia) SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Many individuals asymptomatic ▪ Auscultation: crescendo-decrescendo murmur ▫ ↑ intensity with ↓ venous return (Valsalva, standing), ↓ in intensity with ↑ venous return (handgrip, squatting) ▪ Symptoms arise as complications arise ▫ Dyspnea: left ventricle stiffening, atrium increasing back pressure into lungs → interstitial lung congestion ▫ Fatigue ▫ Exertional chest pain: ischemia ▫ Syncope with exertion: brain receiving low oxygen ▫ Palpitations: ischemia, arrhythmias ▫ Sudden cardiac death ▪ May exhibit bifid pulse: two pulses felt ▫ Mitral valve moves toward outflow tract → ↑ obstruction mid-systole
Chapter 6 Cardiomyopathy DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Echocardiography/cardiac MRI ▪ Enlarged heart chambers/↓ ejection fraction Chest X-ray ▪ ↑ ratio of distance between heart, thoracic cage LAB RESULTS Genetic testing ▪ Cardiomegaly-implicated gene mutations OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ECG ▪ Detectable electrical changes, such as left ventricular hypertrophy TREATMENT MEDICATIONS Disopyramide ▪ Can be used for its negative inotropic properties Digoxin contraindicated ▪ ↑ force of contraction, can ↑ obstruction SURGERY ▪ Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Surgical septal myectomy ▪ Involves removing portion of interventricular septum, ↓ obstruction Septal ablation ▪ Chemical myomectomy to partially ablate septum Heart transplant ▪ If unresponsive to all other forms of treatment OTHER INTERVENTIONS Lifestyle change ▪ Cessation of high-intensity athletics Beta blockers ▪ ↓ heart rate, contractile force Calcium channel blockers ▪ If beta blockers not tolerated ▪ Slows down heart rate Figure 6.4 The histological appearance of the myocardium in a case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is complete myocyte disarray. The myocytes display bizarre forms with side to side branching and are arranged in a whorled configuration. Figure 6.3 Gross pathology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The myocardium has become so enlarged that both ventricles are almost entirely obliterated. OSMOSIS.ORG 37
Figure 6.5 Illustration showing the Venturi effect: low blood pressure pulls the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve towards the septum, creating an obstruction. Blood can’t get through the small opening, leading to a crescendo-descrescendo heart murmur. RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Cardiomyopathy: heart wall is rigid, has difficulty stretching, pumping ▪ Ventricles restrict filling, ↓ cardiac output CAUSES ▪ Infiltrative diseases, storage diseases, endomyocardial diseases. Amyloidosis ▪ Amyloids are misfolded proteins → insoluble → deposit in tissues, organs → organs less compliant ▪ Familial amyloid cardiomyopathy ▪ Mutant transthyretin (TTR) protein; misfolded deposits preferentially in heart tissue ▪ Senile cardiac amyloidosis; TTR protein/ wild type TTR deposits in heart over time Sarcoidosis ▪ Immune cell collections form granulomas in 38 OSMOSIS.ORG heart tissue Endocardial fibroelastosis ▪ Fibrosis develops in endocardium (inner lining of heart) and subendocardium (layer underneath endocardium) Loffler syndrome ▪ Eosinophils accumulate in lung tissue ▪ Loeffler endocarditis/Loeffler endomyocarditis: eosinophils also accumulate in endocardial layer of heart tissue → inflammation, endocardial fibrosis → restrict heart tissue Hemochromatosis ▫ Iron deposits in heart tissue, contributes to restricted tissue Other causes ▪ Heart tissue radiation ▫ Radiation generates reactive oxygen species → inflammation over time → myocardial fibrosis → tissue stiff,
Chapter 6 Cardiomyopathy restrictive COMPLICATIONS ▪ Can → diastolic heart failure ▫ Stiff ventricles → cannot stretch → less filling → low cardiac output → heart failure MNEMONIC: LASHER Causes of Restrictive cardiomyopathy Loffler syndrome Amyloidosis Sarcoidosis Hemochromatosis Endocardial fibroelastosis post-Radiation SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Auscultation: stiff ventricle → S4 heart sound ▪ Presents as congestive heart failure: dyspnea; paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; orthopnea; crackles; intraalveolar hemorrhage; fatigue; inability to exercise; appetite loss; abdomen swelling; swelling of feet, ankles; uneven/rapid pulse; chest pain; low urine output; nocturia Figure 6.6 Histological appearance of the myocardium in a case of cardiac amyloidosis; a cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Cardiac myocytes (dark purple) are surrounded by amyloid deposits (light pink). TREATMENT MEDICATIONS Loop diuretics ▪ ↓ systemic, pulmonary congestion Beta-blocker, calcium channel blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors ▪ Slows heart rate, ↑ ventricular-filling time SURGERY ▪ Heart transplant DIAGNOSIS OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ECG ▪ Low-amplitude signals: peak to nadir measurement of QRS complex being < 5mm (limb leads)/< 10mm (precordial leads). Low voltage produced due to loss of viable myocardium ▪ Small QRS complexes: QRS complexes represent ventricular contraction, restricted tissue → weaker contraction OSMOSIS.ORG 39

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Cardiomyopathy essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Cardiomyopathy by visiting the associated Learn Page.