Chlamydia Notes

Contents

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Chlamydia essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Chlamydia by visiting the associated Learn Page.
NOTES NOTES CHLAMYDIA MICROBE OVERVIEW ▪ Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria ▪ AKA “energy parasites”; rely on host cell for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis ▪ Primarily infects epithelium, mucous membranes Morphology ▪ Coccoid; cell walls don’t contain peptidoglycan Replication ▪ Intracellular life cycle: infectious stage (spore-like elementary body) attaches to host cell via endocytosis → reorganizes within cellular vacuole into reticulate body (vegetative form) → reproduces, forms multiple reticulate bodies → forms elementary bodies → released from host cell → continues infectious process CHLAMYDIA SPECIES (PNEUMONIA) osms.it/chlamydia-species PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Species of chlamydia; primarily causes community-acquired pneumonia ▪ Transmitted via respiratory secretions ▪ Can also infect endothelial cells → atherosclerosis 342 OSMOSIS.ORG RISK FACTORS ▪ ↑ risk with age COMPLICATIONS ▪ Otitis media, sinusitis, parapneumonic effusions, pericarditis
Chapter 62 Chlamydia SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Gradual onset ▪ General malaise, myalgia, fever, chills, pharyngitis, hoarseness, sinusitis, cough ▪ Extra-respiratory manifestations: meningoencephalitis, reactive arthritis, myocarditis DIAGNOSIS LAB RESULTS ▪ Microbial identification: serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nasopharyngeal swab culture, direct antigen testing ▪ Complete blood count (CBC): normal white blood cell count OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ▪ History, physical examination: lung sounds (e.g. crackles, wheezing) DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Chest X-ray ▪ Unilateral patchy infiltrates TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Antibiotics CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS osms.it/chlamydia-trachomatis PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Species of chlamydia; primarily affects eyes, urogenital tract ▪ Different serovars cause diverse disease states ▫ A, B, Ba, C: trachoma ▫ D–K: urogenital infection, conjunctivitis ▫ L1, L2, L2a, L2b, L3: lymphogranuloma venereum RISK FACTORS ▪ Risky sexual practices (e.g. multiple sex partners, unprotected sex) ▪ Impaired mucous membrane barrier (e.g. cervical friability) ▪ History of sexually transmitted disease ▪ Exposure during birth COMPLICATIONS ▪ Ocular: ophthalmia neonatorum (conjunctivitis), blindness ▪ Genitourinary: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), PID-associated ectopic pregnancy, infertility, proctitis, cervicitis, urethritis ▪ Chlamydial pneumonia, bronchitis, perihepatitis (Fitz-Hugh–Curtis syndrome); ↑ risk of acquiring/transmitting HIV due to genital inflammation SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Trachoma ▪ Chronic, granulomatous inflammation of eye → corneal ulceration, scaring, pannus formation → blindness Adult conjunctivitis ▪ Inclusion (purulent erythematous injection of epithelial surface) conjunctivitis, mucopurulent discharge → keratitis Urogenital infections ▪ Individuals who are biologically female ▫ May be asymptomatic ▫ Bartholinitis, cervicitis (mucopurulent endocervical discharge), endometritis, salpingitis, urethritis (dysuria, pyuria) ▫ PID: uterine/adnexal tenderness ▫ Perihepatitis: right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain OSMOSIS.ORG 343
▪ Individuals who are biologically male ▫ Urethritis: dysuria, watery/mucoid discharge Neonatal conjunctivitis ▪ Eyelid swelling, watery/purulent discharge, red, thickened conjunctiva (chemosis) ▪ Conjunctival scarring, corneal vascularization ▪ ↑ risk of developing C. trachomatis pneumonia Infant pneumonia ▪ Diffuse, interstitial disease; rhinitis, staccato cough Figure 62.1 Purulent discharge from the cervix of an individual with chlamydia infection. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) ▪ Anorectal disease: anorectal pain, tenesmus (feeling of incomplete bowel evacuation), rectal bleeding/discharge, constipation ▪ Painless ulcer → inflammation of lymph nodes (preauricular, submandibular, cervical) → progression to systemic symptoms ▪ Population at highest risk: individuals who are biologically male who have same-sex intercourse (MSM) DIAGNOSIS LAB RESULTS ▪ Microbial identification: nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ▪ Clinical presentation, history TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Antibiotics ▪ Sexual partners should also be treated 344 OSMOSIS.ORG Figure 62.2 A cervical smear from an individual infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. There are numerous organisms contained within intracellular vacuoles.

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Chlamydia essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Chlamydia by visiting the associated Learn Page.