Depressive disorders Notes

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This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Depressive disorders essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Depressive disorders by visiting the associated Learn Page.
NOTES NOTES DEPRESSIVE & BIPOLAR DISORDERS GENERALLY, WHAT ARE THEY? PATHOLOGY & CAUSES Mental disorders involving mood changes ▪ Often involve depression, sometimes mania/hypomania (see below) CAUSES ▪ Genetic (especially between close relatives) ▪ Linked to neurotransmitter regulation (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine) ▪ High comorbidity with other mental disorders COMPLICATIONS ▪ Self-harm/suicide ▪ Social consequences (e.g. losing friends) SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Manic episodes featuring a mood disturbance, increased energy/activity, and ≥ three of following for ≥ one week, affecting day-to-day functioning ▪ Hypomanic (“less than manic”) episodes featuring a mood disturbance, increased energy/activity, and ≥ three of the above during a period > four days, not affecting day-to-day functioning ▪ Major depressive episodes featuring ≥ five of following in a two week period ▪ Other mood changes, including more mild depression; see individual disorders 700 OSMOSIS.ORG DIAGNOSIS ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Excessive, unreasonable fear/distress Struggle to control symptoms Lasts > six months Affects day-to-day functioning Not explained by other condition/substance TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Antidepressants, lithium PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ See individual disorders OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Lifestyle changes ▫ Improved diet, more exercise, more sunlight
Chapter 92 Depressive & Bipolar Disorders BIPOLAR I DISORDER osms.it/bipolar-I PATHOLOGY & CAUSES Bipolar disorder characterized by extreme mood swings with combination of manic, hypomanic, depressive episodes CAUSES ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Genetic (especially between close relatives) Medications (e.g. SSRIs) Often no particular trigger High comorbidity with other mental disorders MNEMONIC: DIG FAST Characteristics of manic episode Distractibility Indiscretion: excessive involvement in pleasurable activities Grandiosity Flight of ideas Activity increase Sleep deficit/decreased need for sleep Talkativeness/pressured speech SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Mood swings ▪ Manic episodes ▪ Usually, hypomanic and depressive episodes DIAGNOSIS ▪ ≥ one manic episode ▪ Symptoms affect day-to-day functioning ▪ Not caused by other condition/substance TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Atypical antipsychotics (e.g. olanzapine), in combination with mood stabilizers (esp. lithium) PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) OSMOSIS.ORG 701
BIPOLAR II DISORDER osms.it/bipolar-II DIAGNOSIS PATHOLOGY & CAUSES Bipolar disorder characterized by mood swings with hypomanic, depressive episodes. CAUSES ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Genetic (especially between close relatives) Medications (e.g. SSRIs) Often no particular trigger High comorbidity with other mental disorders SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Mood swings ▪ Hypomanic, depressive episodes ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ≥ one hypomanic episode ≥ one major depressive episode Symptoms affect day-to-day functioning Not caused by other condition/substance TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Atypical antipsychotics (e.g. olanzapine), in combination with mood stabilizers (esp. lithium) PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER osms.it/major-depressive-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES Depressive disorder characterized by one or more episodes of a strongly depressed mood ▪ Episodes interfere with day-to-day life in activities such as eating, working, and sleeping CAUSES ▪ Exact cause unknown; runs in families, especially between close relatives; linked to neurotransmitter regulation (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine); high comorbidity with other mental disorders 702 OSMOSIS.ORG SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Major depressive episodes DIAGNOSIS ▪ One or more major depressive episodes ▪ The symptoms cause distress in other areas of life ▪ The disturbance is not better explained by or accounted for by another medical condition or substance ▫ There has not been a manic or hypomanic episode
Chapter 92 Depressive & Bipolar Disorders MNEMONIC: SIG ED CAPS Diagnostic criteria for Major depressive disorder Sleep: increased or decreased Interest: decreased Guilt/worthlessness Energy: decreased or fatigued Depressed mood most of the day Concentration/difficulty making decisions Appetite and/or weight increase or decrease Psychomotor activity: increased or decreased Suicidal ideation/ thoughts of death TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, NDRIs) PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Improved diet, more exercise, more sunlight PREMENSTRUAL DYSPHORIC DISORDER osms.it/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Depressive disorder characterized by mood changes during menstrual cycle CAUSES ▪ Unknown; possible sensitivity to hormonal changes SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Emotional ▫ Affective lability ▫ Irritability/anger ▫ Anxiety/angst ▪ Other symptoms ▫ Diminished interest/pleasure ▫ Decreased concentration ▫ Fatigue ▫ Weight loss/gain ▫ Inability to sleep/oversleeping ▫ Feelings of being overwhelmed ▫ Mild physical symptoms (e.g. tenderness/swelling) DIAGNOSIS ▪ Mood changes ≤ one week before menses, as evidenced by presence of ≥ five of symptoms (≥ one from each category), resolving within one week post-menses ▪ Must occur during majority of menstrual cycles over past year ▪ Symptoms affect day-to-day life ▪ Not caused by other condition/substance OSMOSIS.ORG 703
TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ SSRIs, oral contraceptives PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Lifestyle changes: improved diet, more exercise, more sunlight SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER osms.it/seasonal-affective-disorder PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Depressive disorder characterized by one or more episodes of a strongly depressed mood ▪ Episodes interfere with day-to-day life in activities such as eating, working, and sleeping ▪ Occurs most commonly in seasons of lower light, like winter CAUSES ▪ Exact cause unknown; runs in families, especially between close relatives; linked to neurotransmitter regulation (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine); high comorbidity with other mental disorders SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Major depressive episodes DIAGNOSIS ▪ One or more major depressive episodes ▪ The symptoms cause distress in other areas of life ▪ The disturbance is not better explained by or accounted for by another medical condition or substance ▫ There has not been a manic or hypomanic episode TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs, NDRIs) PSYCHOTHERAPY ▪ E.g. cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Improved diet, more exercise, more sunlight 704 OSMOSIS.ORG

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Depressive disorders essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Depressive disorders by visiting the associated Learn Page.