Nucleic Acid Metabolism Notes

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Nucleotide metabolism

NOTES NOTES NUCLEIC ACID METABOLISM NUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM osms.it/nucleotide-metabolism Nucleotides ▪ Building blocks of DNA, RNA ▪ Consist of 5 carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base/nucleobase ▫ 5 carbon sugar: deoxyribose (→ DNA) or ribose (→ RNA) ▫ Nucleobase: pyrimidine (cytosine, thymine for DNA, uracil for RNA) or purine (adenine, guanine) ▫ Sugar + nucleobase = nucleoside ▪ RNA nucleosides (resulting nucleotide) ▫ Adenine + ribose = adenosine (monophosphate → AMP) ▫ Guanine + ribose = guanosine (monophosphate → GMP) ▫ Cytosine + ribose = cytidine (monophosphate → CMP) ▫ Uracil + ribose = uridine (monophosphate → UMP) Figure 3.1 Nucleotide components: a phosphate group, a sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), and a nucleobase (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil). OSMOSIS.ORG 23
▪ DNA nucleosides (resulting nucleotide) ▫ Adenine + deoxyribose = deoxyadenosine (monophosphate → dAMP) ▫ Guanine + deoxyribose = deoxyguanosine (monophosphate → dGMP) ▫ Cytosine + deoxyribose = deoxycytidine (monophosphate → dCMP) ▫ Thymine + deoxyribose = deoxythymidine (monophosphate → dTMP) De novo nucleotide synthesis ▪ RNA nucleotides start with ribose-5phosphate ▫ Then for pyrimidine nucleotides (UMP and CMP) ▫ Then for purine nucleotides (AMP and GMP) 24 OSMOSIS.ORG ▪ DNA nucleotides start with diphosphates of RNA nucleotides ▫ Ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase reduces ribose to deoxyribose ▫ Molecules then lose phosphate groups → dCMP, dUMP, dAMP, dGMP ▫ Thymidylate synthetase converts dUMP into dTMP Nucleotide breakdown ▪ Pyrimidine rings C,T,U broken down into CO2 + NH3, excreted through exhalation/ urine ▪ Purine rings G,A degraded into uric acid, excreted through urine Salvage pathway ▪ Guanine, hypoxanthine from purine breakdown can be restored into GMP, AMP
Chapter 3 Biochemistry: Nucleic Acid Metabolism Figure 3.2 De novo synthesis of RNA pyrimidines. CTP naturally loses phosphate groups → CMP. OSMOSIS.ORG 25
Figure 3.3 De novo synthesis of RNA purines from precursor iosine monophosphate (IMP). Figure 3.4 DNA nucleotide synthesis from diphosphates of RNA nucleotides. 26 OSMOSIS.ORG
Chapter 3 Biochemistry: Nucleic Acid Metabolism Figure 3.5 Breakdown of purines into uric acid. OSMOSIS.ORG 27
Figure 3.6 Salvage pathways that restore AMP and GMP. 28 OSMOSIS.ORG

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Nucleic Acid Metabolism essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Nucleic Acid Metabolism by visiting the associated Learn Page.