Osmosis High-Yield Notes
This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Paramyxoviruses essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Paramyxoviruses:
NOTES NOTES PARAMYXOVIRUSES MICROBE OVERVIEW ▪ Paramyxoviruses: negative-sense singlestranded RNA virus family ▪ Natural hosts: humans, vertebrates, birds ▪ Replication: occurs in cytoplasm; exits by budding ▪ Transmission: air borne particles ▪ Viral structure: enveloped, linear genomes, spherical/pleomorphic ▪ Pathogenic paramyxoviruses: human parainﬂuenza virus (HPIV), measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUSES (HPIV) osms.it/human-parainfluenza-viruses PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis): infection usually caused by HPIV ▪ Four distinct HPIV serotypes ▫ HPIV-1: croup ▫ HPIV-2: croup; upper, lower respiratory tract illnesses ▫ HPIV-3: bronchiolitis, pneumonia ▫ HPIV-4: infrequently detected ▪ Common respiratory distress cause (children) ▪ Viral infection → inﬁltration of histiocytes, lymphocytes, other white blood cells → airway inﬂammation, edema → upperairway obstruction → ↑ breathing work, barky cough, inspiratory stridor (turbulent, noisy airﬂow), vocal hoarseness RISK FACTORS ▪ Age ▫ Six months to three years 478 OSMOSIS.ORG ▪ Biologically-male to biologically-female ratio of 1.4:1 ▪ Previous intubation ▪ Hyperactive airways ▪ Congenital airway narrowing ▪ Late autumn (peak case onset) COMPLICATIONS ▪ Respiratory failure ▪ Bacterial superinfection ▫ Pneumonia, bacterial tracheitis SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Prodrome ▫ Upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (coryza, cough, mild fever) ▪ Acute onset: “barking” cough ▪ Inspiratory stridor; biphasic stridor (severe obstruction sign) ▪ Hoarseness
Chapter 87 Paramyxoviruses ▪ Respiratory distress, ↑ breathing work (e.g. suprasternal, intercostal, subcostal retractions) ▪ Agitation ▪ Symptoms worse at night ▪ Asynchronous chest movement ▪ Severe: fatigue, hypoxia, hypercarbia DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Corticosteroids; dexamethasone for antiinﬂammatory effects ▪ Nebulized epinephrine in moderate, severe croup; temporary airway obstruction relief OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Provide comfort, avoid child’s further distress OTHER DIAGNOSTICS Westley score ▪ Severity classiﬁcation ▪ Calculated on ﬁve factors ▫ Level of consciousness, cyanosis, stridor, air entry, retractions ▫ Score between 0–17 classiﬁes case as mild, moderate, severe croup; impending respiratory failure MEASLES VIRUS osms.it/measles PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ A paramyxovirus that causes measles, a highly infectious illness ▫ Fever, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, followed by exanthem ▪ Transmitted via person-to person contact, droplets → infects upper respiratory tract epithelial cells Clinical stages (four) ▪ Incubation ▫ 6–21 days ▫ Virus infects respiratory mucosa/ conjunctiva → local replication → lymphatic tissue spread → disseminates via blood circulation → ﬁrst virema (infection of endothelial, epithelial, monocyte, macrophage cells) ▫ Usually asymptomatic ▪ Prodrome ▫ 2–4 days ▫ Onset of fever, malaise, anorexia, conjunctivitis, coryza, cough ▪ Exanthem ▫ Onset 2–4 days after fever ▫ Erythematous, maculopapular, blanching rash ▫ Begins on face → trunk → extremities ▪ Recovery ▫ Cough persists 1–2 weeks ▫ Immunity thought to be lifelong RISK FACTORS ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Measles virus exposure Travel to measles-endemic areas No prior measles immunization Failed measles vaccine response Immunocompromised individuals: AIDS, lymphoma/other malignancy, T cellsuppressive medication OSMOSIS.ORG 479
COMPLICATIONS ▪ Secondary infection ▪ Diarrhea (most common) ▪ Pneumonia (most common children’s death cause) ▪ Otitis media (younger individuals) ▪ Encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ▪ Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Prodrome ▫ Fever onset, malaise, anorexia, conjunctivitis, coryza, cough ▪ Koplik’s spots on buccal mucosa (1–2 days before rash onset) ▫ Red spots on erythematous buccal mucosa ▫ Measles pathognomonic ▪ Maculopapular, blanching, erythematous rash (approx. 14 days after initial infection) ▫ Head → trunk → extremities ▪ Persistent cough after resolution ▪ Modiﬁed measles ▫ Measles infection in individual with existing measles immunity ▫ Milder symptoms ▪ Atypical measles ▫ Measles virus infection in individuals immunized with killed virus vaccine ▫ Higher, prolonged fever ▫ Dry cough, pleuritic chest pain may present DIAGNOSIS ▪ Individual presenting with febrile rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis LAB RESULTS ▪ Measles detection; one of following ▫ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): positive measles-speciﬁc IgM serology (most common) ▫ Measles IgG antibody: ↑ (between acute, convalescent titers) ▫ Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR): measles virus RNA detection ▫ In culture: Measles virus isolation TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Antipyretics, bacterial superinfection treatment OTHER INTERVENTIONS Figure 87.1 Koplik spots on the oral mucosa of an individual infected with the measles virus. 480 OSMOSIS.ORG ▪ Respiratory support, ﬂuids ▪ Vitamin A supplementation ▫ Vitamin A deﬁciency plays role in delayed recovery, complications ▪ Prevention ▫ No speciﬁc antiviral therapy ▫ MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine ▫ Infection control (airborne transmission precautions for four days after rash onset)
Chapter 87 Paramyxoviruses Figure 87.2 The histological appearance of the lungs of an individual with measles pneumonia. There are numerous giant cells, the nuclei of which display inclusions. MUMPS VIRUS osms.it/mumps PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Causes mumps; largely preventable by vaccination ▫ Fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, anorexia; followed by parotitis ▪ Transmission ▫ Highly contagious ▫ Transmission via respiratory droplets, direct contact, contaminated fomites ▫ Viral shedding begins before symptoms onset ▪ Incubation period: 14–18 days ▪ Outbreaks: schools, military posts, camps, healthcare settings, workplaces ▪ Replication: occurs in upper respiratory tract epithelium → spread via lymphatics → viremia ▪ Lifelong post-infection immunity RISK FACTORS COMPLICATIONS ▪ Orchitis/oophoritis, meningitis, encephalitis, pancreatitis, myocardial involvement, arthritis, deafness SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Prodrome ▫ Fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, anorexia ▪ Parotitis ▫ Swelling, inﬂammation, tenderness of parotid gland(s) ▫ May obscure mandible angle ▫ Unilateral/bilateral ▫ Usually 48 hours after prodrome onset ▫ Commonly children 2–9 years old ▫ Stensen duct oriﬁce: may be erythematous, enlarged ▪ Mastitis ▪ Unvaccinated status, international travel, vaccine failure, immunosuppressed individuals, healthcare workers, closecontact OSMOSIS.ORG 481
DIAGNOSIS ▪ Diagnosis suspected in individuals with parotitis/other salivary gland swelling, orchitis/oophoritis with prodrome, mumps virus exposure LAB RESULTS ▪ In parotitis setting, diagnosis established by detection of ▫ Mump virus RNA: reverse-transcription PCR (buccal/oral swab) ▫ Serum mumps IgM (may not be detectable until 5 days after symptom onset) ▪ Full blood count ▫ Leukocytosis may be seen ▪ Lumbar puncture indicated in suspected meningitis/encephalitis TREATMENT ▪ No speciﬁc antiviral therapy MEDICATIONS ▪ Analgesics, antipyretics, non-steroidal inﬂammatory agents (orchitis/oophoritis) OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Prevention ▫ Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine ▫ Infection control (isolation with droplet precaution until parotid swelling resolved) 482 OSMOSIS.ORG Figure 87.3 Mumps virus causes parotitis, which presents as swelling at the angle of the jaw, widening the facial outline.
Chapter 87 Paramyxoviruses RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV) osms.it/respiratory-syncytial-virus PATHOLOGY & CAUSES SIGNS & SYMPTOMS ▪ Most common cause of bronchiolitis: viral infection of the lower respiratory tract, blockage of small airways (bronchioles) ▫ May also be caused by rhinovirus, inﬂuenza virus ▪ Terminal bronchiolar epithelial cell viral infection → lung epithelial cell damage/ destruction → small bronchi/bronchioles inﬂammation → edema, mucus production, inﬂammation → small airways/atelectasis obstruction ▪ Commonly: children < two years old ▪ Often preceded by upper respiratory tract infection symptoms; rhinorrhea, headache, mild fever ▪ Prodrome ▫ Upper respiratory tract infection (rhinitis, fever) ▪ Cough; tachypnea; expiratory wheeze; ↑ breathing work (nasal ﬂaring, grunting, retractions); crackles heard on auscultation; cyanosis RISK FACTORS ▪ Infants < 12 weeks old, November–May, prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia/ other chronic lung disease history, tobacco smoke exposure, daycare attendance, impaired airway clearance/function (e.g. cystic ﬁbrosis), congenital heart disease, immunodeﬁciency COMPLICATIONS ▪ Bacterial pneumonia, apnea, respiratory failure, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia, asthma DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING Chest X-ray ▪ If differential diagnosis includes pneumonia OTHER DIAGNOSTICS Pulse oximetry ▪ ↓ oxygen saturation TREATMENT MEDICATIONS ▪ Oral corticosteroids: prior wheeze history OTHER INTERVENTIONS ▪ Supplemental oxygen, hydration, mechanical ventilation ▫ Respiratory symptoms peak on days 3–5, begin to resolve OSMOSIS.ORG 483
Osmosis High-Yield Notes
This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Paramyxoviruses essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Paramyxoviruses by visiting the associated Learn Page.