Retroviruses Notes


Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Retroviruses essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Retroviruses:


Human T-lymphotropic virus

Chapter 2 Acyanotic Defects NOTES RETROVIRUSES MICROBE OVERVIEW ▪ RNA viruses ▫ Require DNA generation, integration into host DNA → produce viral progeny ▪ Large viral family ▫ Seven genera ▪ Target cells determined by viral glycoprotein spikes on cell membrane → recognized cell surface receptors, coreceptors → viral entry → provirus creation ▫ Viral reverse transcriptase takes singlestranded viral RNA genome → creates linear, double-stranded DNA virus → provirus ▪ Provirus integration (via integrase) into host-cell DNA → viral particle production ▫ Integration stability of provirus, transmission to host-cell progeny determines retroviral infection persistence in host organism Morphology ▪ Lipid-enveloped particles 80–100nm diameter ▪ Protein core ▫ Two linear, ⊕-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes (7–11 kb) ▫ Enzymes (gene locus) needed for viral replication (protease—pol gene, p10 locus; reverse transcriptase—pol gene, p66 locus; integrase—pol gene, p32 locus) TYPES Human endogenous retroviruses ▪ Proviral DNA/partial genomic sequences integrated into host-genome ▪ Constitutes up to 8% of human DNA ▪ Vertical transmission via germline cells ▪ Translated DNA does not lead to infectious viruses; may → functional proteins Human exogenous retroviruses ▪ Passed horizontally via exposure to blood, sexual secretions, breast milk HUMAN IMMUNOFEDICIENCY VIRUS PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ HIV: human immunodeficiency virus ▪ Member disease of Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family ▫ Characterized by immune cell targeting, immunodeficiency Two pathogenicity targets ▪ Immune system ▫ Mucosal HIV virion infiltration → bloodstream spread → infection of T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages → latency (may be chronic, indolent) → active replication → symptom progression/emergence → further replication→ severe OSMOSIS.ORG 501
immunocompromise, progression to AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) ▫ HIV infection → targeting, infection of CD4+ cells (e.g. CD4+ T-lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophage) → replication, spread → ↓ CD4+ cells → immunodeficiency ▫ Co-receptor CCR5 important in early infection; persistence ▪ Central nervous system (CNS) ▫ HIV infection → macrophage/microglia infection → abnormal CNS cytokine milieu → neuronal cell death Structure ▪ 110nm diameter spherical virion ▪ Core surrounded by lipid bilayer envelope ▪ Lipid envelope ▫ External glycoprotein gp-120, anchored by gp-41 ▫ Binding sites for host-cell CD4+ receptor (co-receptors—chemokine receptors; especially CCR5, CXCR4) ▪ Core ▫ Two single-stranded RNA copies ▫ Two transfer RNA primers (host-cell origin) ▫ Multiple enzyme copies: reversetranscriptase (RT), integrase, ribonuclease H (RNAse H) ▫ Other proteins: vpr, vif, nef (important in early virion life-cycle) Genome ▪ 9kb ▪ Similar to other retroviruses (six genes—tat, rev, vpr, vpu, vif, nef) ▫ HIV-2 specific: Vpx gene (homologous to gene in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV); not present in other lentiviruses) Life cycle ▪ Cell contact, fusion: gp-120, CD4+ receptor fusion → gp-120 conformational change → opened gp-120 recognition site → gp-120 binding to host-cell co-receptor (CCR5/CXCR4) → gp-41 conformational change → gp-41 hydrophobic domain exposed → virion lipid bilayer insertion into cell membrane → virus-host-cell membrane 502 OSMOSIS.ORG fusion → viral entry ▪ Viral genome replication: viral RNA transcribed by viral RT in host-cell cytoplasm → HIV provirus production (double-stranded complementary DNA transcript) → transport to nucleus → integrase insertion in cell DNA → viral DNA transcription → viral RNA, protein ▫ Host-cell activation (naive T cells) important factor in determining active vs. latent HIV replication ▫ Antigen/cytokine-mediated T cell activation → NF-KB (nuclear transcription factor) cell stress activation → ↑ NF-KB promoter-associated gene transcription (in HIV proviral DNA) → ↑ viral replication → viral RNA, protein aggregation in cytoplasm → viral protein cleavage (e.g. gag) → viral content assembly → ↑ virion production (↑↑ virion budding → cell death) ▪ Host-cell death: ↑ virion budding → ↑ host-cell plasma membrane permeability; ↑ viral replication → native protein synthesis interference → dysregulated cellular protein concentrations → cell death ▫ Non-cytopathic host-cell HIV infection: HIV infection → inflammasome pathway activation → pyroptosis (inflammatory cytokine, cellular content release) → immune cell recruitment → viral spread (likely plays large role in HIV infection spread) Transmission ▪ HIV-1, HIV-2 ▪ Three transmission modes ▫ Sexual: USA—biologically-male individuals engaging in same-sex sexual contact (MSM) particularly important transmission mode (highest disease incidence → homosexual biologicallymale individuals); global—majority of sexual transmission via heterosexual intercourse; co-existent sexuallytransmitted disease (genital ulceration especially) → ↑ transmission risk during intercourse ▫ Parenteral: non-iatrogenic, intravenous (IV) drug users (shared needles, syringes, other paraphernalia contaminated with HIV ⊕ blood); iatrogenic (hemophiliacs who received
Chapter 93 Retroviruses HIV-contaminated factor VII, IX concentrates; HIV-contaminated blood transfusion recipients; health personnel—e.g. needle-stick injuries) ▫ Vertical, mother-to-infant: in utero, transplacental spread; infected birth canal → delivery → neonatal infection; neonatal HIV ⊕ breast milk ingestion ▪ HIV-2 only ▫ Believed to be zoonosis resulting from SIV cross-speciation infection ▫ Endemic areas correlate with those of sooty mangabey ▫ Less transmissible than HIV-1 Disease ▪ Acute retroviral syndrome ▪ AIDS AIDS ▪ Persistent fever (> one week); fatigue; weight loss; diarrhea; generalized lymphadenopathy (LAD); serious, opportunistic infection ▪ Secondary neoplasms ▪ Neuropsychiatric disease ▫ Delirium; major depression; mania; schizophrenia; post traumatic stress disorder; substance abuse, addiction (commonly HIV infection risk factor) ▫ Dementia (AKA AIDS dementia complex): cytomegalovirus encephalitis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, CNS lymphoma TYPES ▪ Likely related to SIV ▪ Two human virus types ▫ HIV-1, HIV-2 RISK FACTORS ▪ West Africa residence (HIV-2), homosexual/ bisexual biologically-male individuals (USA), IV drug users, hemophiliacs, blood (or component) transfusion recipients, maternal HIV infection COMPLICATIONS ▪ Opportunistic infections, secondary malignancies, AIDS, neuropsychiatric disease Figure 93.1 An esophaeal biopsy composed of squamous mucosa with candida hyphae. Esophageal candidiasis is a common opportunitic infection in individual with AIDS. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Acute retroviral syndrome ▪ Self-resolving, flu-like syndrome; sore throat; myalgias; fever; weight loss; fatigue Chronic infection ▪ Variable ▫ Asymptomatic → minor infection ▫ Oral/vaginal candidiasis, herpes zoster, mycobacterial tuberculosis (especially Sub-Saharan Africa) Figure 93.2 The histological appearance of mycobacterium avium intracellulare. There are numerous organisms within the cell cytoplasm. OSMOSIS.ORG 503
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DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT LAB RESULTS MEDICATIONS Serology: enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) ▪ IgG, IgM, p24 antibody testing ▫ Time to positivity: 15–45 days (P24 (viral core protein) earliest positive marker) ▫ May be combined for HIV-1, HIV-2, p24 immunoassay in diagnostic, screening purposes Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) ▪ Antiretroviral drug combination regimen ▫ Early initiation → ↓ morbidity, ↓ mortality, ↓ transmission risk (regardless of CD4+ count) ▪ Six distinct drug classes ▫ Combination of three drug types used for effective viral load management, combat particular drug class resistance development ▪ Protease inhibitor preferred initial agent ▫ Resistance testing results → narrow therapy ▪ Complications ▫ Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome ▫ ↓ in clinical state (symptom return experienced during active viremic phase), despite ↑ CD4+ levels ▫ Believed to be due to reinvigorated host response to high antigenic burden of persistent microbes, remaining viral load ▪ ⊕ Viral RNA level test (> 100,000 copies/ mL) ▫ May be used in indeterminate HIV-1/ HIV-2/ p24 immunoassay ▪ Leukopenia ▫ ↓↓ CD4+ count ▫ CD4+:CD8 ratio < 1 OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 506 OSMOSIS.ORG Flu-like illness Opportunistic infection Needlestick injury with HIV ⊕ individual Unprotected sex with partner of unknown/ HIV ⊕ status Pre-exposure prophylaxis ▪ Daily tenofovir use can very effectively ↓ transmission
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OTHER INTERVENTIONS Monitoring ▪ HIV RNA testing two, four, eight weeks after ART initiation ▫ Continue testing every two weeks until levels below detection limits ▫ Drug resistance testing at 24 weeks if ↑ in RNA viral level/no ↓ in RNA levels ▪ Once viral suppression achieved → repeat testing for RNA levels 3–6 months Screening ▪ One-time for individuals 13–75 years old ▪ Pregnant individuals (even in negative prior pregnancy screening) ▪ Annual/more frequent for high-risk individuals ▫ MSM (USA) ▫ IV drug users ▫ Sex partners of HIV unknown status, HIV ⊕, bisexual, individuals who inject drugs ▪ Blood factor screening ▫ Plasma/recombinant factor hemophiliac recipients 508 OSMOSIS.ORG Opportunistic infection prophylaxis ▪ Determined by CD4+ count ▪ Situational avoidance advised (e.g. cat litter, Toxoplasma exposure) Pre-exposure prophylaxis ▪ Indications ▫ High-risk sexual behavior/drug use ▫ Reliable individual to adhere to daily medication regimen
Chapter 93 Retroviruses HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS PATHOLOGY & CAUSES ▪ Oncogenic retrovirus endemic to certain areas of world → T cell leukemia/lymphoma ▫ AKA HTLV-1 ▫ Genus: Deltaretrovirus ▪ Structure ▫ Enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus ▫ Only human pathogen of oncovirus subfamily ▪ Genome ▫ Contains retrovirus-consistent gag, pol, env, long terminal repeat (LTR) ▫ HTLV-1 specific: tax; encodes protein essential for viral replication; viral RNA transcription stimulation from 5’ LTR ▪ Transmission ▫ Usually via infected T cells (vs. virion particle) ▫ Breastmilk, sexual transmission, blood transfusion, tissue donation, IV drug use, zoonotic transmission (nonhuman primate source) ▪ Disease ▫ Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma ▫ Myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis Targets CD4+ cells ▪ Unlike HIV life cycle, pathogenesis; largely unknown targeting, infection, replication mechanisms ▫ Tumor initiating cell appear to be CD4+ memory T cell with stem-cell-like properties ▪ Distinct from HIV ▫ HTLV-1 → proliferation of T cell population rather than killing of cells ▪ Integrated provirus → mitotic cell division → host cell replication ▫ Low replication rate ▫ Host cell DNA polymerase ensure high transcription fidelity (HTLV-1 genetically stable) Tax-specific oncogenic hallmarks ▪ Inr pro-growth signaling, cell survival ▫ Stimulates AKT (via PI3K), NF-KB, cyclin D2, ↓ CDK inhibitors → ↑ prosurvival, cell growth → polyclonal T cell expansion ▪ Inc genomic instability ▫ Interference with DNA-repair function ▫ Inhibition of cell cycle checkpoints (activated by DNA damage) RISK FACTORS ▪ Travel/residence in Japan, Caribbean basin, South America, Africa ▫ Sporadic incidence in USA COMPLICATIONS ▪ Mycosis fungoides ▫ Cutaneous T cell leukemia/lymphoma manifestation ▪ Uveitis ▪ Gastric cancer Rheumatologic, pulmonary disorders ▪ Chronic inflammatory arthropathy ▫ Shoulder, wrists, knees ▪ Sjögren syndrome ▪ Immune thrombocytopenia Infectious replication ▪ Integrated provirus re-expression → intracellular virion OSMOSIS.ORG 509
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS Adult T cell lymphotropic leukemia/lymphoma ▪ Skin lesions ▪ Generalized lymphadenopathy ▪ Hepatosplenomegaly Myelopathy/spastic paraparesis ▪ Insidious-onset lower extremity weakness, spasticity ▪ Hyperreflexia, ankle clonus present ▪ ⊕ extensor plantar responses ▪ Lumbar pain ▪ Others ▫ Back pain ▫ Detrusor instability → nocturia, urinary frequency, incontinence ▫ Minor sensory change: paresthesias, ↓ vibrational sense DIAGNOSIS DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING ▪ Lytic bone lesions MRI ▪ Tropical spastic paraparesis ▫ Cervical/thoracic cord atrophy ▫ Spinal cord white matter disease LAB RESULTS ▪ Leukopenia ▪ Hypercalcemia ▪ Histology is variable, with characteristic circulating tumor cells ▫ Medium-sized lymphocytes with condensed chromatin, bizarre hyperlobated nuclei (AKA clover leaf/ flower cells) 510 OSMOSIS.ORG ▪ ELISA ▫ Antibody against HTLV-1 virus detection ▪ Western blot ▫ Confirmatory testing for ELISA ▪ Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ▫ Available for HTLV-1 ▫ Useful with ↑↑ suspicion (ELISA negative) ▪ Flow cytometry ▫ ↑ FoxP3 expression in leukocytes (↑ regulatory T cell-indicative) ▫ Otherwise immunophenotypically mature T lymphocytes OTHER DIAGNOSTICS ▪ Travel/residence in endemic area TREATMENT ▪ No therapy proven to benefit affected individuals MEDICATIONS ▪ Corticosteroid therapy may slow disease course ▪ Antiviral therapy ▫ NRTI zidovudine, IFN-alpha proven beneficial OTHER INTERVENTIONS Prevention ▪ Endemic area-avoidance when breastfeeding ▪ Blood donor screening ▪ Safe-sex practices ▪ Discourage needle sharing

Osmosis High-Yield Notes

This Osmosis High-Yield Note provides an overview of Retroviruses essentials. All Osmosis Notes are clearly laid-out and contain striking images, tables, and diagrams to help visual learners understand complex topics quickly and efficiently. Find more information about Retroviruses by visiting the associated Learn Page.