Child abuse: Clinical (To be retired)


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Child abuse: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric medicine and surgery

Allergy and immunology

Immunodeficiencies: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric allergies: Clinical (To be retired)

Cardiology, cardiac surgery and vascular surgery

Kawasaki disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Congenital heart defects: Clinical (To be retired)

Endocrinology and ENT (Otolaryngology)

Pediatric ear, nose, and throat conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Clinical (To be retired)

Gastroenterology and general surgery

Pediatric constipation: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric gastrointestinal bleeding: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric vomiting: Clinical (To be retired)

General pediatric medicine

Developmental milestones: Clinical (To be retired)

Precocious and delayed puberty: Clinical (To be retired)

Disorders of sex chromosomes: Pathology review

Child abuse: Clinical (To be retired)

Disorders of sexual development and sex hormones: Pathology review

Hematology and oncology

Sickle cell disease: Clinical (To be retired)

Infectious diseases

Vaccinations: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric infectious rashes: Clinical (To be retired)

Skin and soft tissue infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric bone and joint infections: Clinical (To be retired)

Viral exanthems of childhood: Pathology review

Nephrology and urology

Pediatric urological conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Elimination disorders: Clinical (To be retired)

Neurology and neurosurgery

Neurodevelopmental disorders: Clinical (To be retired)


Pediatric ophthalmological conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Pulmonology and thoracic surgery

Pediatric upper airway conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric lower airway conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Cystic fibrosis: Clinical (To be retired)

BRUE, ALTE, and SIDS: Clinical (To be retired)

Rheumatology and orthopedic surgery

Pediatric orthopedic conditions: Clinical (To be retired)

Pediatric bone tumors: Clinical (To be retired)

Muscular dystrophies and mitochondrial myopathies: Pathology review


Child abuse: Clinical (To be retired)

USMLE® Step 2 questions

0 / 8 complete


USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 1-year old male infant is brought to the emergency department by his foster mother. She claims that the child has been acting strangely since this morning. His medical history is noncontributory. On physical examination, the baby looks lethargic and has alcohol and cigarette body odor. Skin examination reveals multiple bruises over shoulders, head, and buttocks. Lower limb exam shows a limited range of movement on his left leg. Fundoscopic exam shows bilateral retinal hemorrhages. His temperature is 36.7°C (98°F), pulse is 150/min, respirations are 50/min, blood pressure is 110/70 mmHg. Before finishing the medical exam, the foster mother wants to leave and asks how much longer is the visit going to take. When she is explained about the presumptive diagnosis, she gets angry and denies any form of treatment for the baby. Which of the following is the best immediate next step in management?


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Evan Debevec-McKenney

Every year, approximately 40 million children around the world suffer from child abuse - also called non-accidental trauma.

Child abuse is defined as anything that the parent or caregiver does or doesn’t do that causes harm to a child.

There are four main types of abuse - physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect.

Physical abuse includes any intentional physical injury, which results in a physical mark or bruise - and in an extreme form leads to fractures, internal bleeding, and death.

Emotional abuse includes saying and doing things that undermine a child’s emotional development or self-esteem, such as threats, criticisms, or rejection.

Sexual abuse is any form of sexual exploitation of a child.

And neglect is failure of the caregiver to cater for the basic needs of a child, ranging from food, clothing, and shelter, to medical attention, an education, and also love and support.

Neglect also includes abandonment, which is leaving a child alone or unsupervised for a long period of time.

Now, although it’s not considered abuse - corporal punishment - like spanking is no longer considered an appropriate way to discipline a child.

Spanking young children can cause serious injury, and the child is often unlikely to understand the connection between the behavior and the punishment.

Repeated spanking may cause agitated, aggressive behavior in the child, and models aggression as a way to resolve conflict.

Spanking and even threats of spanking, alters the parent–child relationship, making other forms of discipline less effective when physical punishment is no longer an option, such as with adolescents.

Finally, because spanking can help the parent relieve their anger, it can increase the chance that a parent will spank a child in the future.

In some situations, repeated spanking can lead to more aggression which can lead to leaving a physical mark - a sign of physical abuse.

Child abuse is particularly common among children with higher needs.

That includes premature or colicky infants, as well as children with physical, psychological, or cognitive disabilities.


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