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Pediatric ear, nose, and throat conditions: Clinical
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The most common ear, nose, and throat issues that occur in children can be divided into four categories.
Let’s begin with ear pathologies. First, otitis externa or external otitis refers to inflammation of the external auditory canal usually caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Diagnosis is clinical.
On presentation, individuals show signs of external ear canal inflammation like ear pain, pruritus, discharge, and hearing loss due to ear canal edema. The auricle and tragus might also show signs of erythema and might be painful when touched. Individuals might have a history of tympanic membrane perforation, ear infection, recent ear instrumentation, or hearing devices use.
Pneumatic otoscopy is needed to see if the tympanic membrane is affected.
Children can suffer from various types of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions. The first category includes those which cause ear pain and hearing loss, such as otitis externa, otitis media, mastoiditis, aural atresia, and ear foreign bodies. Next, there is a category of nose-related conditions associated with rhinorrhea, such as viral and bacterial sinusitis, foreign bodies, and anterior and posterior epistaxes. The third category encompasses conditions that cause breathing difficulties, such as nasal polyps, adenoids, and choanal atresia. The fourth and last category includes conditions that cause a sore throat, like viral and bacterial pharyngitis.
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