AssessmentsPeptic ulcers and stomach cancer: Clinical practice
USMLE® Step 2 style questions USMLE
A 56-year-old woman presents to the primary care physician with a chief complaint of post-prandial abdominal pain and dyspepsia. The patient reports the symptoms started approximately 3-4 weeks ago and have been worsening in intensity. The patient’s only other medical problem is osteoarthritis, for which she occasionally receives corticosteroid injections and recently started taking diclofenac daily. Current temperature is 37 °C (98.6 °F), pulse is 86/min, respirations are 16/min and blood pressure is 142/62 mmHg. Physical examination shows epigastric tenderness on palpation. Which of the following is the best initial management for this patient’s condition?
Content Reviewers:Rishi Desai, MD, MPH
Chronic ulcers sometimes don’t cause any symptoms. When they do, the most common symptom is dyspepsia.
With gastric ulcers, epigastric pain worsens when eating a meal because of the hydrochloric acid that’s produced in response to food.
With duodenal ulcers, epigastric pain is relieved while eating a meal, but it typically recurs 2 to 5 hours later or it can appear at night. That’s because with duodenal ulcers, Helicobacter pylori is involved in most cases and it increases the hydrochloric acid production by indirectly increasing gastrin production and when there’s no food to act as a buffer, the pain worsens.
If there’s an ulcer in the pyloric antrum or in the duodenum, then it can cause gastric outlet obstruction. That can worsen the symptoms and even cause the individual to lose weight.
With stomach cancer, things get a little more complicated. Risk factors include chronic mucosal inflammation, like in Helicobacter pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, and surgery on the stomach; as well as environmental triggers like tobacco, and occupational exposures to coal, steel, or iron.
However, a MALT lymphoma which stands for mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma can develop when there’s persistent antigenic stimulation of the gastric mucosa like in a Helicobacter pylori infection.
Symptoms of stomach cancer usually appear in advanced stages and includes unintended weight loss, diffuse abdominal pain, hematemesis or melena and a sense of fullness in the upper abdomen after eating a small meal.
When a peptic ulcer is suspected, barium radiography, which uses barium as contrast, can sometimes be done.
In contrast, a malignant ulcer is more irregular and the mucosal folds don’t usually reach the margin of the ulcer.
Nowadays, barium radiography is not commonly done, because an upper endoscopy is better for diagnosing a peptic ulcer and distinguishing it from stomach cancer. However, if the Barium radiography is done and shows a peptic ulcer, then an upper endoscopy isn’t usually needed.
On the other hand, if the barium radiography is inconclusive or if it simply isn’t done at all, then an upper endoscopy is done.
In contrast a malignant ulcer looks like a crater that has thick and irregular margins with a mass resting within the base.
In addition, the mucosa surrounding the malignant ulcer is often nodular and necrotic.
Usually, duodenal ulcers rarely cause cancer and are biopsied only when the appearance suggests malignancy, but gastric ulcers develop into stomach cancers more frequently, so they should always be biopsied.
If it’s a chronic peptic ulcer then it typically has lymphocytes, and some signs of fibrinoid necrosis and new granulation tissue at the base and margins.
In contrast, a malignant ulcer looks different depending on the type of cancer.
If a gastric adenocarcinoma has been confirmed on the biopsy, then a CT scan of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis is done to stage the stomach cancer. The findings are then classified in the Tumor-Nodes-Metastasis or TNM system.
Gastric adenocarcinoma has 5 stages, from 0 to 4, 0 meaning only the gastric mucosa is infiltrated and 4 meaning there are distant metastasis.
In the first two stages of cancer- 0 and 1, an endoscopic resection of the cancer can be done or else a subtotal or total gastrectomy is indicated, meaning that a part of the stomach or the entire stomach is surgically removed.
In stage 2 and 3, chemotherapy is used before or after the surgery to shrink the tumor and lower the chances of the cancer coming back and then a total gastrectomy is done. In this situation, the omentum and the nearby lymph nodes are also removed. If the individual cannot undergo surgery, then chemoradiation may be used.
In stage 4 disease, palliative surgery like a gastric bypass or a subtotal gastrectomy, along with chemoradiation, is used to relieve symptoms.
If the biopsy and immunohistochemistry showed a MALT lymphoma, a CT scan of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis is done to stage the cancer, and H.pylori serology is done if it wasn’t already detected on the biopsy. Then the MALT lymphoma is staged using the Lugano classification into 4 stages, where stage 1 means that the cancer is confined in the gastrointestinal tract and stage 4 means that the cancer spread to distant organs or in the lymph nodes of both sides of the diaphragm.
Treatment depends on whether H. pylori is present or not.
With stage 1 and 2 MALT lymphomas that are H.pylori positive, treatment is eradication of the H.pylori infection, and this alone can induce regression of the cancer.
If H.pylori is not present or if the eradication of H.pylori with different treatment regimens repeatedly fails over the course of a year, then radiation therapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy can be tried.
With stage 3 and 4 MALT lymphomas, that are either H.pylori positive or H.pylori negative, the treatment consists of chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
Now, let’s say that instead of stomach cancer, we’re dealing with peptic ulcers. The most common cause of peptic ulcers is colonization with Helicobacter pylori. This is a gram negative bacteria that makes a home for itself in the stomach by releasing proteases that injure the surrounding mucosa.
A peptic ulcer is an erosion or a break in gastric or/and duodenal mucosa. The most common causes of peptic ulcers are infection with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Symptoms of peptic ulcers include upper left abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, nausea, and loss of appetite. Treatment involves a combination of medications, and sometimes surgery.
Moving on to stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, it is a type of cancer that begins in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors for stomach cancer include H. pylori infection, a diet high in smoked or salty foods, and a family history of stomach cancer. Symptoms of stomach cancer usually appear in advanced stages and include nausea, vomiting, unintended weight loss, diffuse abdominal pain, hematemesis or melena, and a sense of fullness in the upper abdomen after eating a small meal. Treatment of stomach cancer may involve surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.