Pulmonary hypoplasia



Pulmonary hypoplasia

Respiratory system

Apnea and hypoventilation

Apnea of prematurity

Sleep apnea

Pleura and pleural space disorders


Pleural effusion



Pulmonary hypoplasia


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USMLE® Step 1 questions

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High Yield Notes

4 pages


Pulmonary hypoplasia

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USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

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A 1-hour-old newborn girl is evaluated in the nursery for respiratory distress. She was born at 34 weeks gestation to a 17-year-old primigravida woman who did not receive prenatal care. The patient’s temperature is 36.4°C (97.5°F), pulse is 128/min, respirations are 80/min, and blood pressure is 75/30 mmHg. Oxygen saturation is 85% on room air. On physical examination, she appears cyanotic, and subcostal retractions and nasal flaring are noted. The nasal tip is flattened, the ears are low-set, and the chin is small and retracted backward. Appropriate treatment is initiated. Which of the following is the most likely underlying cause for this patient’s condition? 

External References

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Bilateral renal agenesis

pulmonary hypoplasia and p. 684

Pulmonary hypoplasia p. 684

Potter sequence p. 602


Pulmonary hypoplasia is a congenital condition in which the lungs are underdeveloped, resulting in an abnormally low number or size of bronchopulmonary segments or alveoli and a reduced lung capacity. Symptoms of pulmonary hypoplasia include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and difficulty feeding. Treatment for pulmonary hypoplasia involves providing supplemental oxygen or using a mechanical ventilator to help the baby breathe. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.


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