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Raise the Line with Podcast

“Raising the Line” is about strengthening our global healthcare systems. To do this, we need to accomplish many things including training more healthcare professionals, and helping them stay in their professions longer. However, there's so much more we can accomplish together.

Shiv Gaglani, Osmosis CEO, and Michael Carrese, Executive Producer, talk to top experts in the fields of medical education, policy, healthcare, technology and more to explore solutions to strengthen the capacity of our healthcare system.

Raise the Line explores solutions with top experts to strengthen the capacity of our healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.



Perspectives on Improving the Rare Disease Patient Journey - Dr. Maria Pfrommer, Director of Nursing Education at Osmosis and her husband, Jack Pfrommer


Regular listeners to Raise the Line know so-called "rare diseases" aren't really rare when you consider up to thirty million Americans are affected by them directly. That makes it likely you know someone who is impacted, or you know one of their colleagues, friends or loved ones. That fact has hit home at Osmosis over the last few months as we've started planning a major focus on rare diseases for 2023, which we're calling The Year of the Zebra. Several teammates have come forward to tell us their rare disease stories and we'll be sharing some of those on the podcast in the coming months. First up is our Director of Nursing Education Dr. Maria Pfrommer and her husband, Jack, who join host Shiv Gaglani to offer insights into the diagnosis and treatment journey they’ve been on to deal with Jack’s battle with retroperitoneal fibrosis, an inflammatory condition which can cause obstructions in the urinary tract. While Maria’s vast clinical knowledge and experience in healthcare systems has obviously been helpful, it was still a struggle to get the right diagnosis and treatment due to limited experience among healthcare professionals with rare conditions. “From my perspective, I really think that we need to learn more about rare disorders from every level of care,” she says. Tune in for great real-world advice for healthcare professionals dealing with rare disease patients including the importance of listening to the patient, understanding their whole life picture and focusing on transitions of care.


The Power of a Rare Disease Community - Luke Rosen, Founder of


“You know, it's easy to say that default answer that everything's okay, but it's really not. She's lost a lot of her vision, she's got hundreds of seizures at night, and she's having difficulty walking,” shares Luke Rosen about his eight-year-old daughter Susannah. She was born with KIF1A-associated neurological disorder -- or KAND -- a rare, degenerative genetic disease for which there is currently no cure or treatment. On this episode of Raise the Line, Luke talks about how he and his wife Sally summoned the strength to move beyond their family’s own challenges to create which is working to rapidly discover a treatment for all patients and families affected by this devastating disorder, but to also create a supportive community. “Five years later, we have approximately four hundred families around the world that we've identified and there's not one family I know that doesn't play a significant role in what we do.” Thanks to that global community and partnerships with the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, Columbia University, the n-Lorem Foundation, the Jackson Laboratory and many other organizations, there’s reason to be hopeful, as Luke shares with host Shiv Gaglani. “Susannah has been fortunate enough to just have started an experimental treatment. We really are on the brink of several things for, hopefully, the entire community.” Tune in for a candid and moving look at how families and supportive scientists and healthcare providers are mobilizing to fight back against a rare and pernicious threat to their children. Mentioned in this episode:


The Health and Wellness Implications of Adding Scent to Virtual Reality - Aaron Wisniewski & Dr. Rachel Herz of OVR Technology


It’s not hard to start feeling relaxed when you experience a virtual reality visit to a mountain top, taking in the beautiful views of forested peaks and valleys and hearing the rustling breeze. You can actually feel transported from the real world. But imagine how much more transporting it would be if you could also smell the pine trees? Well, now you can, thanks to OVR Technology, a Vermont-based company that has overcome substantial technical challenges to seamlessly add scent to the VR and AR experience. “Research has shown quite directly that adding sense of smell to VR tangibly increases presence and immersion and the key factors that everybody is looking for when they experience a VR environment,” says neuroscientist Dr. Rachel Herz, the company’s chief scientific adviser. And because not everyone has positive associations with scents from the real world, says CEO Aaron Wisniewski, OVR is creating new ones to facilitate the therapeutic impact of the scented VR experience. Both stress that the applications for the technology go well beyond recreational use, and the units are already being deployed in clinical settings with one study showing a major -- and lasting -- drop in levels of pain, stress and anxiety among inpatients after doing just a few short sessions with the OVR headset per week. Don’t miss this fascinating conversation with host Michael Carrese as we explore how OVR’s groundbreaking technology is adding a powerful new dimension to the virtual world. Mentioned in this episode:


Science As a Force for Social Good: Dr. Richard Horton, Editor in Chief of The Lancet


Science As a Force for Social Good: Dr. Richard Horton, Editor in Chief of The Lancet The first scientific paper on the clinical features of patients infected with what came to be known as COVID-19 was published in The Lancet, launching that famed journal's prominent role in COVID research, which it has maintained throughout the pandemic. But being an influential force in science and medicine is nothing new to this nearly 200-year-old publication, which is published by Osmosis' parent company, Elsevier. We explore that role on this episode of Raise the Line with The Lancet’s Editor in Chief, Dr. Richard Horton. A physician by training, Dr. Horton himself has often been described as a global force in science and medicine, partially for his work in greatly expanding the content offerings and global reach of The Lancet’s family of publications, but also for his outspokenness on politically charged issues. “I don't apologize for not being impartial. I would say it's the only way you can be. You have to look at the world, diagnose the world view you have, and then we use our journal to try and achieve certain objectives. It's what science was all about originally,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. Insights abound in this penetrating and lively look at the intersection of science and society, what lessons we should learn from COVID and the prospects for humans solving the existential threats we’ve created. “Our role at The Lancet is to draw attention to the dangers that face the human species, but also, to the solutions that are available to us.” Mentioned in this episode:


Fostering and Sharing New Ideas in Public Health - Maria Thacker-Goethe, CEO of The Center for Global Health Innovation


Deploying community-based health workers has been a popular tactic to boost vaccination rates during COVID, but when the crisis ends, how can they stay engaged to help achieve other public health goals? That’s the kind of question Maria Thacker-Goethe grapples with as CEO of the Atlanta-based Center for Global Health Innovation. “You have to have the respect to keep paying people and not leave them high and dry because that will just break down trust,” says Thacker-Goethe, who is also the President and CEO of Georgia Bio. A key link in public health efforts in Georgia and beyond, she takes a ground-up approach to fostering collaboration among stakeholders in order to develop and share innovations, particularly those focused on health equity. A good example is a new “innovation district” the Center is building that will, in a unique twist, co-locate high tech health companies with public health organizations. As she tells host Dr. Rishi Desai, Thacker-Goethe believes an underlying issue connecting all of this work is building trust through better communications, including more effective use of popular social media platforms, a tactic not yet fully embraced by the public health establishment. Don’t miss this fascinating exploration of innovation in public health, and stay tuned to learn about a special project that shares the wisdom of public health pioneers. Mentioned in this episode:


A New “Community-Embedded” Medical School – Dr. Brigham Willis, University of Texas at Tyler School of Medicine


The first thing you see when you walk into the medical school building at the University of Texas at Tyler is a teaching kitchen, and the director of the nutrition curriculum is a dietician from the East Texas Food Bank. That should give you some idea of how differently the school’s founding Dean, Dr. Brigham Willis, sees its mission. “What we're trying to do is create a very unique program focused on how we can serve the particular needs of East Texas,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. And in a region that has some of the highest rates of obesity, diabetes, and smoking in the country, that means focusing on lifestyle medicine. “Our students are actually going to have the opportunity to become nutrition coaches and personal trainers which I think is really foundational to what we're trying to do. Instead of just saying, “eat better," they're going to have actual strategies and be a connection to resources to be able to help patients do that.” It also means being deeply embedded in the community in everything they do, and recruiting students from the region to increase the chances that they will eventually practice there and help reduce a physician shortage. From limiting lectures in favor of active learning, to requiring students to become certified EMTs in the first six weeks, to pushing to make education tuition free for all students, Dr. Willis and his team are taking full advantage of the opportunity to build a medical education from the ground up, as you’ll learn in this fascinating episode. Mentioned in this episode:


An Innovative Approach to Funding Rare Disease Research - Heather and Ryan Fullmer, Co-founders of the EB Research Partnership


Heather Fullmer will never forget seeing her nursing license for the first time and realizing the date of issuance was the same as her son Michael’s birthday. She had spent the week since delivering him in the NICU as Michael’s struggle with the rare, life-limiting skin disorder Epidermolysis Bullosa began. “It was a surreal moment. I became a nurse professionally, and in my personal life on the exact same day,” she tells host Shiv Gaglani. EB is a pernicious disease which causes skin to tear at the slightest touch, with resulting wounds that don't heal. “If I had to sum up Michael's day,” says her husband, Ryan Fullmer, “it's probably fear and pain. We still haven't been desensitized to his screams, or the disappointment on his face from not being able to enjoy the day-to-day things that he sees his friends do.” In this inspiring episode of Raise the Line, you’ll learn how the Fullmers rose above their all-consuming struggles to care for Michael to forge a new approach to rare disease research with the support of Pearl Jam singer Eddie Vedder and his wife, Jill. The resulting EB Research Partnership raises millions of dollars a year to fuel promising efforts to find a cure for EB and, ultimately, other rare diseases. Tune in to learn how the “venture philanthropy” model they use differs from typical investing, and hear about important fundraising events for EB including Venture Into Cures hosted by Spiderman actor Tom Holland. And be sure to stay tuned to hear their advice to medical providers on the importance of building rapport with patient families, and taking an interdisciplinary approach to treating rare disorders. Mentioned in this episode: Mikey's World video:


A Look Inside Medical Education in Israel - Dr. Peter Gilbey and Dr. Yair Blumberg of Bar-Ilan University, Azrieli Faculty of Medicine


Although many countries are facing a shortage of physicians, Israel is being hit particularly hard by this problem, especially in rural areas. But as we’ll learn in this episode of Raise the Line, Dr. Peter Gilbey and Dr. Yair Blumberg of The Azrieli Faculty of Medicine at Bar-Ilan University are doing their part to reverse that trend by developing new approaches to medical education. “If you take the best local people and train them, they will stay in the area,” says Dr. Gilbey, chair of the Department of Research and Innovation in Medical Education. For Yair Blumberg, the school’s Physiology Coordinator, doing more to embed technologies such as ultrasound in the educational journey is a key focus. “Point-of-care ultrasound may be one of the major tools future physicians are going to use, so we decided as a strategic teaching method to teach the students to use ultrasound from basically the first day of medical school.” Tune in to this discussion with host Shiv Gaglani in which Drs. Gilbey and Blumberg shed light on the biggest challenges they’re facing as medical educators, how medical education is impacting health outcomes in Israel, and the innovative solutions they’re implementing in their curriculum. They also share their best advice for medical students on overcoming burnout and meeting the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic while progressing in their medical careers. Mentioned in this episode:


‘The Worst Disease You’ve Never Heard Of’ - Brett Kopelan, Executive Director of debra of America


Imagine 60% of your skin having open wounds every day. That's the grim reality of those with Epidermolysis Bullosa, or EB, a rare genetic connective tissue disorder which results in blisters and tears to the skin being created from even minor contact or friction. The range of complications this causes for almost every normal activity – from eating to bathing to sleeping – is daunting, leading our guest today, Brett Kopelan, to call EB “the worst disease you’ve never heard of.” He should know. Brett and his wife have the equivalent of fulltime jobs just managing daily care for their daughter Rafi, who suffers from a severe form of EB. Advocating for Rafi led to Brett becoming Executive Director of debra of America, the only national not-for-profit providing all-inclusive support for patients battling the disease. In this revealing discussion with host Shiv Gaglani, Brett opens up about his frustrations with the health insurance system, the challenges of raising money for rare diseases, and why he feels there is a need for more doctors to specialize in rare disorders for patients over twenty-three. Brett shares some positive news as well about several promising gene therapies on the horizon. “I can say that the past two years has really been the first time that I've felt I'm working for my child's life, not for beyond her. So that's an exciting thing.” Mentioned in this episode:


New Hope for Patients with Black Bone Disease - Nick Sireau, CEO and Chair of Trustees at the AKU Society


Just a few weeks ago we shared the story of John Crowley’s family and their battle with Pompe disease on Raise the Line, and in this episode, we’re honored to share another remarkable story of a rare disease parent and the contributions they've made beyond their efforts to help their own loved ones. Nick Sireau is the CEO and Chair of Trustees of the AKU Society, an award-winning patient group that helps people with Alkaptonuria (AKU), sometimes referred to as black bone disease, a rare disorder affecting both of his children. In AKU patients, a build-up of acid in the body leads to a painful breakdown of bones and joints, and serious heart complications. Nick’s tireless efforts have led to some extraordinary results, including making the very first treatment for AKU available. Nick is also Founder and Chair of Orchard, a medical charity that works to develop new and better treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a misunderstood mental illness that Nick has battled for many years. Join host Shiv Gaglani for a fascinating look at the impact one parent has had on the welfare of so many, and for advice for those weighing career options in the healthcare field. “There are hundreds, if not thousands of these ultra-rare diseases that just nobody is touching.” Mentioned in this episode:


Empowering Consumers to Make Better Health Decisions - Dr. Taylor Sittler, Head of Research & Development at Levels


Direct-to-consumer healthcare and how technology can empower people to be active participants in achieving and maintaining their own good health is a favorite topic on Raise the Line. Today we’re going to take a closer look at how one consumer health device that’s growing sharply in popularity, continuous glucose monitors, can be used to drive healthier decisions. Millions of Americans wear the devices to see the impact of what they eat on their bodies, but it can be difficult for people to use that information. That’s where Levels enters the picture, a health tech company helping people discover how diet and lifestyle choices impact their metabolic functioning. “We're enabling people to better understand what health decisions they should be making,” says Dr. Taylor Sittler, the company’s Head of Research and Development. Levels does that through an app that presents data from the monitors in a way that people can understand. For example, you can see a chart showing your glucose levels over the course of the day. Next up for Levels is supporting people as they act on the information, and providing data on exercise and sleep. Join host Michael Carrese as he explores this growing area of medical technology with Dr. Sittler, and how measuring and monitoring resilience can also play an important role in improving health. Mentioned in this episode:


A New Tool to Improve Clinic Visits for Both Patients and Providers – Dr. David Canes, Founder of WellPrept


Unlike many young children who are fearful of visits to the doctor, Dr. David Canes was fascinated by his. This early interest set the foundation for a career in medicine, leading him to become a skilled urologist and robotic surgeon. But he started to feel unsatisfied with the repetition of information he needed to deliver during patient appointments. “I think there's a lot of other doctors like me who really love making a connection with another human being who needs your help, but if you are repetitively explaining things, you enter an autopilot type of mindset and it really bothered me a lot.” Ultimately, the patient-centered solution he developed grew into the company Wellprept, which empowers doctors to curate educational content that can easily be shared with patients before appointments via a single link. Happily, it’s working well for both the physicians who are using the system and their patients. “The "ah-ha" moment seems to be that the patient comes back in and says, ‘thank you so much for sending me that,’ and then the provider notices that the visit is better.” Check out this wide-ranging conversation with host Shiv Gaglani, in which Dr. Canes shares his insights on other ways to reduce physician burnout, thoughts on improving the doctor-patient relationship, and tips on planning for a long-term career in medicine. Mentioned in this episode:


A Mission to Maximize the Use of Donated Organs - Leslie McMahon, Organ Recovery Manager with Donor Alliance


There’s good news in the world of organ donation and transplant. For the first time last year, more than 40,000 transplants were performed in the U.S. and donations from deceased donors increased for the eleventh year in a row. And as we’ll learn from today’s guest Leslie McMahon, newer technologies are making it possible to evaluate organs for viability that previously might have been rejected due to concerns about trauma-inflicted damage or other factors. “They can put the heart in a box and watch its function outside of the body before implanting it. They have the same devices for liver, kidneys and lungs as well.” McMahon is Organ Recovery Manager at Donor Alliance, an organ, eye and tissue procurement organization serving Colorado and parts of Wyoming, one of 57 OPOs in the United States dedicated to helping the 106,000 Americans in need of transplants. “Our vision is to maximize all donation opportunities. We are really focused on performance improvement to be able to meet that vision.” Don’t miss this informative conversation with host Shiv Gaglani in which McMahon shares her insights on the challenges of procuring organs for donation, the special connection developed with donor families, and why having a positive attitude is essential in growing a career in the healthcare field. Mentioned in this episode:


A Patient Perspective on Degenerative Brain Disease - Leonard Marshall, Former NFL Great and Dementia Advocate


It was a decade after NY Giants great and Super Bowl champion Leonard Marshall retired when he first started to notice cognitive issues and a concerning change in attitude. Five years, many doctor visits and countless hours of research later, the two-time Pro Bowl defensive lineman received a diagnosis of CTE, or chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a degenerative brain disease that’s common in former NFL players. He estimates taking over 30,000 blows to the head in his entire college and pro football career, which included 12 years in the NFL. “I knew what I signed up for when I started to play pro football. I knew there was a very strong chance I could end up getting a knee injury, back injury, neck injury, maybe a concussion or two. But nowhere in that fine print did it say you could end up with chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and no one ever talked about it.” Today, Marshall is using his high profile to support CaringKind, New York City's leading expert on Alzheimer's and dementia caregiving with a forty-year history of working with community partners to help affected patients and families. Join host Shiv Gaglani for this touching opportunity to hear a patient’s perspective on a disease that is constantly in the headlines, and learn what Leonard Marshall is doing to support people facing the same reality. Mentioned in this episode:


On the Medical Frontlines of the War in Ukraine – Dr. Oleg Turkot, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital


On this special episode of Raise the Line, we get an eyewitness account of how medical needs are being met in the midst of the war in Ukraine from Ukrainian-American anesthesiologist Dr. Oleg Turkot, who has been coordinating resources and treating patients since the war started. As he tells host Shiv Gaglani, one important focus for him has been working with the Butterfly Network to distribute hand-held ultrasound devices. “If you have an ultrasound that weighs sixty pounds, lugging that as you're fleeing from a rocket attack ends up not really being your best priority versus something that you have on your belt.” Dr. Turkot is not new to improving medical care in under-resourced countries. For years, he’s been working with Kybele, an organization that creates healthcare partnerships across borders to improve childbirth safety. Tune in to this fascinating and important conversation to hear more about that work, how Twitter can be a powerful resource in crowdsourcing medical devices, and about some of the unique differences between the healthcare systems in the United States and Ukraine. “I think the most important thing is to continue to support organizations that are doing the work on the ground because this is going to have to continue for years.” Mentioned in this episode:


The Growing Role of Students As Partners in Medical Education: Dr. Ronald Harden, General Secretary of the Association of Medical Education in Europe


“From the beginning, my approach was that we need to challenge the system,” says Dr. Ronald Harden, General Secretary of the Association for Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). In the 1970’s as a young medical professor in Scotland, this mindset led Harden to create the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, or OSCE, which dramatically improved the way medical students are evaluated. Many years and contributions later, he continues to push the field through AMEE, which is holding its popular annual conference starting August 27 in Lyon, France. As he tells host Shiv Gaglani, his latest focus is on the evolving role of the student, which will be described in a book being published by Elsevier next year. “The student has a changing role as a partner in the learning program. They're not just there as a client or consumer, but as a partner.” This partnership could extend to the area of helping to assess peers on resilience and problem-solving -- qualities newly recognized as important due to COVID -- and ones that students might be in a better position to observe than professors. Check out this inspiring wisdom drop from a veteran educator who has not lost even a wee bit of enthusiasm for his work. “I think we have an exciting future ahead in medical education. There are so many things still to be done.” For more information on the AMEE conference, visit


Using Technology to Create Deeper Learning Experiences - Dr. Peter Decherney, Faculty Director of the Online Learning Initiative, University of Pennsylvania


Like many academics, Dr. Peter Decherney wears many hats, but in his case you can also add a virtual reality headset. That’s because in addition to being a professor of Cinema & Media Studies at the University of Pennsylvania, he’s also a filmmaker working in both the traditional “flatty” format and virtual reality, with subjects ranging from artists in Puerto Rico to a Jewish community in Ethiopia. Choosing which medium to use to tell which story is a newer part of the process he enjoys. “Filmmaking is often about this kind of obsessive control. It's a challenge to be able to give up some control and create lots of different opportunities and learning experiences for audiences,” he tells host Michael Carrese in this episode of Raise the Line. Using technology to create learning experiences is also a big part of his job as the Faculty Director of UPenn’s Online Learning Initiative, a role that put him at the center of perhaps the largest, quickest, and most significant change in higher education in modern times when the pandemic forced the universal use of remote learning. “The pandemic was a moment of reflection and it was kind of amazing to see people across campus just think about education and pedagogy in a really deep and new way.” Check out this wide-ranging conversation to find out what that new thinking is leading to, what he likes about online instruction himself and one of the most important things universities learned about themselves during the pandemic.


What a Long Strange Trip: The Fall and Rise of Psychedelics in Medicine – Dr. Jim Fadiman, Author and Pioneer in Psychedelic Research


The current interest in using psychedelics for mental health treatment is a ‘back to the future’ moment for Dr. Jim Fadiman, a pioneer in psychedelic research known as the father of microdosing. “The method that's been developed for administering high doses in a supervised environment is replicating exactly what we developed in the 1960s,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. At that time, the federal government approved his research, but when the Nixon administration criminalized this class of drugs for political reasons, all research stopped, creating a wide belief that they are unsafe when actually, he says, they’re among the pharmacologically safest drugs. In the absence of government-sanctioned research, what Fadiman calls “citizen science” has been thriving. Hundreds of thousands of people have self-reported through social media and other means that the drugs improve their functioning and have no serious side effects. Other countries are sponsoring research yielding the same results. In the context of a deepening mental health crisis, Fadiman believes it makes sense to integrate psychedelics into treatment, especially when the pharmaceuticals in use are only modestly effective for a minority of patients. Make sure to listen through to the end of the episode to learn about his new book, Symphony of Selves on harmonizing different aspects of our personalities to reduce stress and increase empathy for others. This is a deeply-informed, revealing and fun conversation you won’t want to miss.


A Multipronged Approach to Incontinence: Vanita Gaglani, Physical Therapist, Author and Incontinence Expert


More than twenty-five million people in the U.S. experience bladder leakage every day and while the problem is more common in women, millions of men also confront this challenge. Unfortunately, says Vanita Gaglani, support for men dealing with this issue is lacking, especially after prostate surgery. “Men have been ignored and they have an equal problem. They don't know who to go to. There is no structure. There are no guidelines for them to follow.” Gaglani recognized this gap not long after starting her physical therapy practice in Melbourne, Florida thirty years ago, and now 90% of her patients are men. In that time, she’s treated thousands of people with a multipronged approach that resolves incontinence issues in a matter of weeks. “Kegels are not the end-all, be-all treatment. We have to have a complete approach,” she says, which includes nutrition, understanding body mechanics and lifestyle changes. Gaglani has detailed her protocol in a new book: Life After Prostate Cancer and Other Urological Surgeries: A Step-by-Step Guide to Stop Urinary Leakage in Ten Weeks, which is a follow-up to an earlier book that was geared more to an older population. Don’t miss this deeply informative conversation about the special characteristics of the bladder, insights on how men approach medical treatments, and advice about helping patients overcome reluctance to speaking about embarrassing issues. And, make sure to listen to the end to discover Vanita’s special connection to Raise the Line!


A Global Look at Online Postgraduate Medical Education and the Future of Healthcare – Dr. Tom O’Callaghan, CEO of iHeed (Cambridge Education Group)


Dr. Tom O’Callaghan thinks he’s already seen the future of medicine in this tech-heavy age, and it looks a lot like the personal, trusted healthcare he saw his father providing in the small community in Ireland in which he was raised. As he tells host Rishi Desai, if you have a good family doctor “you're far more likely to have a better healthcare outcome to every illness you have in your life.” It’s not that O’Callaghan is anti-technology. For one thing, he thinks wearables and remote monitoring will actually facilitate a needed transition from hospital-based to community-based care. But perhaps a greater proof point is he leads a specialty online medical education company called iHeed that leverages the latest technology, tools and educational approaches to make post graduate education for doctors, nurses and allied health professionals in 65 countries across Europe, Middle East, Asia and Africa more accessible and affordable. The company, part of the Cambridge Education Group, also develops national scale residency programs in countries including Malaysia and Saudi Arabia to spur the evolution of primary care in underserved communities. Tune into this revealing conversation for a global take on medical education, to hear why developing more nurses is key to tackling the gaping healthcare worker shortage, and for some wisdom he’s drawn on in his own career as a family practitioner that he discovered on a slip of paper in the bottom of the doctor’s bag his father carried for decades.


Public-Private Partnerships Are Key to Improving Health Equity - Dr. Aditi Mallick, Chief Medical Officer for Medicaid & CHIP at CMS


“The biggest things I’ve learned about improving health equity are the importance of data and relationships,” says Dr. Aditi Mallick, who, in her role at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services counts that goal as a top priority. That knowledge was largely gained last year while she was director of North Carolina’s COVID-19 Response Command Center. Data on testing and vaccination rates by race and ethnicity allowed Mallick and her team to pinpoint where outreach efforts should be targeted. Then it was a matter of communicating effectively with community organizations to drive turnout to free clinics. Those public-private partnerships are also vital to achieving progress on other priorities Dr. Mallick has related to advancing whole-person health. As she tells host Dr. Rishi Desai, when clinics are closely connected with community social service agencies, a “closed-referral loop” can develop so all stakeholders know that patient needs are being addressed. “The more we can do to encourage that model will serve us well in meeting health-related social needs.” Check out this informative conversation to learn how the nation’s largest insurance programs work and interconnect, why Dr. Mallick identifies with a “doctor plus” approach to her work, and what can help physicians get through the inevitable hard days in their profession.


Find Your People, Find Your Purpose: Youngsuk ‘YS’ Chi, Chairman of Elsevier


“One of the pieces of advice I like to give young people is to collect knowledge, interests and a network of people you want to know. You don't know yet how you are going to use it all, but later it will become obvious which pieces fit with which,” says Youngsuk ‘YS’ Chi, Chairman of Elsevier. If you want a great example of how this approach works, you can look at Chi’s own remarkable career which took him from banking, to helping enable Amazon’s early growth, to being president of Random House to his current role at Elsevier and its parent company RELX, where he is Director of Corporate Affairs and Asia Strategy. Chi reveals to host Shiv Gaglani that what connects those disparate experiences are two people he “collected” at the start of his own career with whom he stayed connected in a mutually beneficial partnership. Seeing relationships as core to success explains why Chi makes time to be a mentor to dozens of people in a wide range of professions. Although wanting to help them on their career journeys is the prime motivator, Chi is quick to point out his mentees are a network he can tap for expertise as part of his commitment to continuous learning. The wisdom drop continues as they discuss how to help employees connect purpose to their work and how a post-COVID analysis needs to include “a humanistic re-questioning of what we do and why we do it.”


Lowering Patient Costs Through Drug Industry Disruption: Mark Cuban, Serial Entrepreneur and Co-Founder of CostPlus Drugs


“I'm in a part of my life where I like to have an impact that disrupts an industry,” says famed entrepreneur Mark Cuban, and his new online pharmacy CostPlus Drugs is already showing signs of creating a major disruption, indeed. Here’s just one example of what his no-frills operation is making possible: a 30-day supply of the cancer-fighting drug Gleevec is usually $2,500, but on the same medication is $17.10 for a month’s supply. You probably have the same question as host Shiv Gaglani: how is this possible? Cuban says CostPlus Drugs sidesteps insurance companies and Pharmacy Benefit Managers to deal directly with manufacturers. There’s a standard 15% markup to cover operational costs, a $3 pharmacy fee and a $5 shipping fee. “That's it, period, end of the story.” Word of mouth over the last two months has pushed sales to levels not expected for two years. Cuban is quick to credit co-founder Alex Oshmyansky and his team, but obviously the business acumen he’s displayed for years on the TV show Shark Tank plays a big role, as does his motivation to do something about a bedeviling problem. “The fact that people are having to choose between rent, food, or medication in this country is wrong in every which way.” Check out this fascinating analysis of the healthcare industry spiced with valuable advice for budding healthcare entrepreneurs, and find out what Cuban thinks the healthcare industry can learn from the NBA.


Dr. Mike Hoaglin - Medical Director of Prairie Health and Independent Telemedicine Consultant


We’ve talked a lot on Raise the Line about the upsides of the telehealth boom, but our guest today, Dr. Mike Hoaglin, brings a new silver lining to light: it’s one way to help with the physician burnout crisis. “I've certainly been in the trenches of burnout in the past, and having the flexibility to be able to see patients when I'm at my best and when I'm able to be at home with my family is just a great setup for me to be successful, and my patients benefit.” In fact, “Dr. Mike” was an early adopter of telehealth and other medical technologies as well. Best proof point? He and host Shiv Gaglani worked together a decade ago to develop the Smartphone Physical. Add that experience to his work in federal health policy, various start-ups and a stint as the clinical director on the Dr. Oz Show, and you can understand why “Dr. Mike” is full of revelations on many subjects including on a special focus of his, the microbiome. For instance, did you know your body has more foreign cells (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc) than human? As Dr. Mike shares with Shiv, intensifying interest in these trillions of microorganisms in recent years has led to a deeper understanding of the wide range of impact gut health has on overall health, from diabetes to mood disorders. Check out this lively excursion through a fascinating career, and be sure to listen all the way through for Dr. Mike’s advice on the one thing you should eat more of for good gut health.


Sharing Insights from Elsevier’s New Clinician of the Future Global Report: Drs. Ian Chuang and Tate Erlinger


On today’s Raise the Line episode, you’ll have a unique opportunity to hear the collective voice of healthcare providers all over the world who shared their needs, hopes and concerns with Elsevier in its first-ever Clinician of the Future Global Report. Elsevier and its partner, Ipsos, engaged nearly 3,000 clinicians from 111 countries to reveal current pain points, predictions for the future, and how the industry can build a roadmap to future-proof healthcare. Join host Shiv Gaglani as he explores the fascinating findings with his Elsevier colleagues Dr. Tate Erlinger and Dr. Ian Chuang. “One of the key pieces of feedback from participants was, ‘I see the potential, I just need support. I need better training and education and skills development to align where healthcare is going,’” said Dr. Chuang, Chief Medical Officer of Global Health. “I would look at this report as a call to action,” said Dr. Erlinger, Vice-President of Clinical Analytics. There are some alarming numbers in here, but healthcare has always responded. We just need to be diligent and look for and test solutions across a broad range of concerns.” What will healthcare look like in ten years and how can we prepare clinicians for that future? Tune into this revealing conversation to learn the answers drawn from a landmark report that will shift the current conversation about global healthcare from problems to solutions.


Practical Steps for Combatting COVID Misinformation: Adam Beckman & Kyla Fullenwider, Office of the U.S. Surgeon General


According to a recent Kaiser Health News study, nearly 80% of Americans believe at least some of the COVID-19 misinformation that has flooded news and social media channels since the start of the pandemic. For today’s Raise the Line guests, this troubling report confirmed the urgency with which their boss, U.S. Surgeon General Vivek Murthy, has tackled this challenge. Adam Beckman and Kyla Fullenwider, both senior-level advisors to Dr. Murthy, join host Shiv Gaglani to detail the “whole society” approach the Office of Surgeon General is taking which involves calling on major stakeholders in social media, education and journalism to do their part, but also providing help to local communities and individual Americans who Dr. Murthy sees as key players in this struggle. “The evidence tells us one of the best ways for addressing health misinformation is through individual, smaller-scale, intimate connections,” says Beckman. To that end, the Office of Surgeon General created a Community Toolkit to provide detailed guidance on how to have difficult conversations with friends or family about misinformation including listening without judgement, steering people to credible sources whenever possible, and avoiding shaming. Don’t miss this fascinating and vitally important conversation about what one of the most visible health figures in the nation is doing about one of the greatest challenges of our time.


Special Episode: Osmosis and Elsevier Join Forces to Raise the Line!


As the exciting new relationship between Osmosis and global medical education leader Elsevier begins, Co-founder & CEO Shiv Gaglani and Chief Medical Officer Dr. Rishi Desai sat down with Jan Herzhoff, President of Health Markets, and Elizabeth Munn, Managing Director of Global Medical Education at Elsevier to discuss how the partnership will benefit students, healthcare providers, and their patients. When contemplating a potential partnership, Munn says Osmosis’ brilliance at boiling down complex topics was a key factor. “People – including us -- write whole chapters on a topic, but Osmosis can get it covered in five minutes. So, look, that's magic! That's actual magic. So, we just think it's the best thing since sliced bread to now have you within the team.” For Jan Herzhoff, bringing together the capabilities of innovative companies like Osmosis and the capabilities and assets from Elsevier to improve the lives of learners and healthcare professionals is an important focus for Elsevier. “Together with Osmosis and our other offerings, we’re here to support you through the educational journey, and through your professional journey. We're also looking forward to your ideas and your suggestions on how we can make your life easier and better.” Check out this lively conversation about navigating a turbulent time in medical education, confronting mistrust in science, and the power of innovation to enhance learning. Plus find out how Elsevier can help Osmosis meet its “big, hairy, audacious goal” of educating one billion people by 2025.


Fixing the Black Hole of American Medicine – Dr. Rahul Rajkumar, COO Optum Care Solutions


Early in Dr. Rahul Rajkumar’s career, he wondered how he could help improve health outcomes at a population level. An interest in public policy led him to the realization that, at least in the U.S., the financing mechanisms of the health care industry are “the main lever” that we have to this end. The question of how these mechanisms should (or could) be reengineered has guided Dr. Rajkumar through a career that has taken him from the clinic to the health insurance industry to government, where as deputy director at the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation, he experimented with different approaches to organizing and paying for health care systems. The problem is “really, really hard,” he tells host Dr. Rishi Desai. Every single case “is a puzzle with a human being at the center of it.” Rajkumar believes more attention should be paid to what he calls ‘the black hole of American Medicine’ – the period after a patient is discharged from the hospital when coordinating care becomes more difficult. “Is there an accountable provider, or a quarterback outside of the hospital? Someone who, beyond their professional ethic, actually cares about what happens to this patient? That's the nut of the issue.” Tune in to hear about novel payment systems emerging in the wake of the Affordable Care Act, the true social meaning of health insurance, and what other nations try to emulate about the famously dysfunctional U.S. health care system.


The Global State of Nursing During COVID – Elizabeth Iro, Chief Nursing Officer at the World Health Organization


“I'm really proud of the global response from nurses to this pandemic. They really have stepped into a situation that is high risk, but they continue to care in the most difficult situations,” says Elizabeth Iro, a lifetime nurse and midwife who was appointed Chief Nursing Officer of the World Health Organization in 2017. Her arrival marked a new focus on nursing and midwifery at the WHO that was captured in several comprehensive reports on the challenges they face and the greater role they could play in improving global health. Based on that data, the World Health Assembly recently adopted a resolution on strengthening nursing and midwifery, something that Iro says will help guide a post-COVID future for nursing. “We have some real solid policy options that we can take in the next five years to support countries and make a difference,” she tells host Shiv Gaglani. Iro sees a future of greater connection between nurses and midwives internationally to advance their impact and also serve as a source of psychosocial support. “The pandemic tested all of us – as a profession, as a community, as family members, and as individuals.” Take advantage of a rare opportunity to hear from one of the world’s leading health officials on critical issues such as vaccine hesitancy, vaccine equity and the importance of having nurses fully involved in setting COVID response policy.


YouTube Powers Health Information Videos - Dr. Garth Graham


Communicating accurate, vital healthcare information to the public has seldom been more important than during the COVID 19 pandemic. As we’ve all seen, the challenges of doing that well have been a major factor in the spread of the disease and participation in vaccination campaigns. Watching all of this carefully is cardiologist, researcher and public health expert Dr. Garth Graham, who was chosen earlier this year to lead a new health partnerships team at Google/YouTube to create high-quality health content for viewers around the world. Graham will work with an impressive coalition of organizations including the Mayo Clinic, National Academy of Medicine, Harvard School of Public Health (and Osmosis!) to extend evidence-based clinical information beyond the exam room in a way that meets the evolving digital health needs of consumers. “The challenge that we're taking on is how to deliver public health information to empower communities across the world to live their healthiest lives. We’re using the power and reach of YouTube to engage people directly with health information in a way that they’re used to receiving other information in their daily lives.” Check out this lively conversation with host Dr. Rishi Desai to learn about the importance of providers seeing life through the eyes of the patient and community, and why the healthcare system sometimes resembles a stampeding elephant.


Are Micro-Assessments the Future of Testing? - Sebastian Vos, Chief Business Officer of Turnitin


We’re all aware that during last year’s massive shift to virtual learning, many colleges and universities scrambled to acquire technology and to help instructors get good at using it to teach and assess their students. Now that the dust is starting to settle on the crisis, many are looking at how all of this worked, and what adjustments need to be made. “I just think there's so many programs that are struggling to figure out what do we do now,” says Sebastian Vos, a veteran of the EdTech space. “I think they're looking at what is actually making a difference. How am I taking my students from novice to expert and what tools are facilitating helping the students along that journey, or helping my faculty to help my students along on that journey?” His company Turnitin helps educators mine data from its assessment tools to evaluate how students are progressing, but also whether the questions they are asking on exams are well-designed. Check out this episode of Raise the Line with host Rishi Desai to learn why Vos thinks micro-assessments -- multiple brief evaluations throughout a course – are gaining momentum over just relying on a few big projects and tests, and why educators should embrace data the same way retailers like Amazon do. “Educators can have that kind of knowledge without being creepy about it, and can share that with you so you can grow on your personal journey.”


Reinventing Healthcare After the Pandemic: Dr. Shantanu Nundy, Chief Medical Officer at Accolade


"Healthcare needs to become distributed, digitally enabled, and decentralized.” That’s the core message in the new book Care After Covid: What the Pandemic Revealed Is Broken in Healthcare and How to Reinvent It, by Dr. Shantanu Nundy. Between his work as a primary care physician, lecturer in health policy at George Washington University Milken Institute for Public Health, advisor to the World Bank on digital health and innovation and role as chief medical officer at Accolade, Nundy brings a lot to the national conversation about improving healthcare. Although plenty needs to be done by regulators, policymakers and other stakeholders, Nundy is also looking to his fellow providers to drive change. Taking the trajectory of telemedicine as an example he says, “we could have moved to virtual care sooner. Part of it was regulation, but part of it was us. We could have been giving our patients' blood pressure cuffs to take home with them. Part of it was regulation, but part of it was us. I think the pandemic has shown that you don't have to wait for someone in DC to solve a problem for you. There's so much that we all know because we're in exam rooms every day and there are things we can do to make care better.” Tune in for a trenchant discussion with host Rishi Desai on removing barriers to change, patient empowerment, changing medical education, training doctors to be mass communicators and much more.


Creating Higher Expectations for the Healthcare Experience - Bhavdeep Singh, CEO and Co-Founder of HealthQuarters


“We've got great doctors, we just need to give them the right ecosystem to work in,” says Bhavdeep Singh, a deeply experienced leader in the healthcare and retail sectors in the U.S. and India. Singh joins Raise the Line today to share the innovations he’s hoping to bring to the healthcare experience with his company HealthQuarters, which is developing a delivery model that combines physicians and other types of providers in one location, with an emphasis on wellness. They’ve just opened a location in New York City in partnership with Mount Sinai, offering convenient access to a wide array of services from primary care to mental health counseling, physical therapy, nutrition education and acupuncture. “The idea is to make what otherwise is such a challenging, sometimes painful experience for people into something where people are comfortable, respected, and they walk out saying, ‘Well, that wasn't so bad. They took care of me and at least I know what I'm doing, and I feel better about it.’" In short, make healthcare as customer-centric as the best retail experiences. Part of the challenge, as Singh sees it, is raising people’s expectations for what their healthcare experience should be like, and creating a mindset of wellness and prevention, something which COVID is helping to spur. Check out this insightful discussion about the many ways we can raise the bar (while we’re raising the line) in healthcare delivery.


COVID is Showing the Value of Value-Based Care – Dr. Tobias Barker, Chief Medical Officer at Everside Health


“Most of the time, things that make sense are probably going to find their way to the top, and value-based care just makes so much sense,” says Dr. Tobias Barker, chief medical officer of Everside Health (formerly Paladina Health). Barker has been exposed to many approaches to delivering care in a career that has taken him from under-resourced areas around the globe to VA hospitals to the retail giant CVS. What makes so much sense to him about value-based care, which pays providers an upfront fee every month for the patients they treat and rewards quality of care, is it allows them to do what will help patients be as healthy as possible without worrying if it fits a billing code. Everside uses this approach providing primary care to the employees of self-insured employers, and it has proven to reduce the total cost of care. It has also proven to be a resilient business model during the pandemic. Providers still in the traditional “fee for service” system were hit hard when patients stopped showing up because there were fewer services to bill for, while those in the value-based system could rely on the steady upfront payments. In this episode of Raise the Line, Barker is full of interesting examples and anecdotes as he recounts to host Shiv Gaglani his circuitous educational and career path, experiences at CVS Health and working early in his career with Dr. Anthony Fauci.


Understand Every Person’s Role – Dr. Vivian Lee, President of Health Platforms at Verily Life Sciences


“Why can't we get better health when we're spending two to three times as much money as any other high-income nation?” asks Dr. Vivian Lee, as so many other Americans have asked for so many years. But not many have developed answers as compelling as hers, making Lee one of the leading voices on healthcare reform in the country. Lee’s perspective, shaped by a rich set of experiences as a clinician, leader and academic, is strengthening a movement to make healthcare more centred on helping patients be as healthy as possible instead of being geared to just treat them when they are sick. Her influential book “The Long Fix” lays out an action plan to create a less costly system and a healthier population. As she explains to host Shiv Gaglani, positive change will depend in part on clinicians knowing as much as possible about the business of healthcare, and also about what other providers do. “You need to understand what every person's role is on the care team. Until you can make the most of every person, how can you drive value?” After running a highly-respected academic health system, Lee is now making an impact in the private sector at Verily Life Sciences, part of the Google family of companies. Listen in to learn how Verily is using digital health and data analytics to support schools, employers and patients during COVID, and the impact it is hoping to make long-term.


Question Everything While You’re Learning – Peter Frishauf, Founder of Medscape


Peter Frishauf’s message for today’s medical trainees and early career professionals is rooted in the zeitgeist of challenging the status quo he absorbed coming of age in the 1960’s and 1970’s. “If they think there is a better way of doing something, they should investigate that. You owe it to the universe of people out there to test out your ideas and push on them a bit and see what proves out.” For instance, it was “rebellious people” in the 1960’s, he argues, who developed the professions of Nurse Practitioner and Physician Assistant and elevated emergency medicine to specialty status. Pushing a bit on his own ideas led to a storied career in which he made a lasting mark as a pioneer in information and technology.  In the early 1980’s, he founded a medical journal company which developed a collaborative “electronic news room” model far ahead of its time. He made perhaps his most important contribution by launching Medscape in the internet’s infancy which has gone on to become the most visited professional medical website in the world, informing millions of clinicians and consumers alike. He's still at it, serving as an influential advisor, investor, board member and leader in New York's vibrant startup culture in healthcare media and life sciences.  But to host Shiv Gaglani, and the entire Osmosis team, he’s the “Godfather” of Osmosis. This is a special opportunity to hear from a visionary whose grounding and enduring mission has been improving health and healthcare for all.


Tie Your Work to Improving People’s Lives - Omar Ishrak, Former CEO of Medtronic


A strong, sustained sense of purpose is the bedrock of a successful company, with everything else flowing from that. So says Omar Ishrak, one of the most influential figures in medical technology and healthcare in the U.S. and globally. He earned that role in part by being Chairman and CEO of Medtronic, the world's leading medical technology company, from 2011 to 2020, but he was also president and CEO of GE Healthcare Systems earlier in his career. When it comes to having a durable purpose, Medtronic is hard to beat. Founded in the late 1940’s, the company has kept the same mission for more than 60 years – to apply biomedical engineering to alleviate pain, restore health, and extend life. Ishrak considers a major part of his legacy at Medtronic to be successfully stewarding that mission and making it possible for his successors to carry it forward for decades to come. Of course, there were other accomplishments in his tenure including the acquisition of Covidien, a $10 billion global manufacturer of surgical products and supplies, marking the largest medical technology acquisition in the history of the industry. In this thoughtful discussion with host Shiv Gaglani, Ishrak talks about drawing encouragement from how quickly different parts of the healthcare industry came together in response to COVID, and what he hopes the lasting improvements will be from this crisis. He also makes the case for shifting the focus of healthcare at both the industry and individual worker level to successful patient outcomes. “No matter what you do in healthcare, having a line of sight to improving outcomes is important. Tie your work to how people's lives get better.”


"Alexa, Can You Improve Healthcare?" – Rachel Jiang, Head of Alexa Health & Wellness


If you’re one of the millions of Americans who just received a smart speaker as a holiday gift, you’re joining an enormous group. Earlier this year it was estimated that 90 million people in the U.S. own one, and that number is growing fast. They offer an easy way to get news, weather, listen to music and control functions in your home, but there are many other uses for these devices and health care is one area where they may play a major role, according to our Raise the Line guest Rachel Jiang who is Head of Alexa Health & Wellness at Amazon. COVID has only underscored this potential. “More than ever it's really important to help people remotely manage their health care needs, and we think Alexa is in a great position to do that,” she says. In fact, Jiang and her team have been working closely with health care providers to develop “skills” (the equivalent of an app on your smartphone) to facilitate safe care both in clinical settings and at home. As Jiang shares with host Jannah Amiel, RN, the video capability of the Echo Show adds power to the instructional value of these interactive devices. For instance, imagine videos showing post-op patients how to change a dressing or do physical therapy while at home. Check out this fascinating discussion to learn more about how this technology might help both patients and providers, how privacy concerns are being addressed and the role software developers will play in tapping what Jiang sees as the endless possibilities ahead.


Walmart’s Vision for Healthcare: Marcus Osborne, Senior VP of Walmart Health


If you’re curious about the impact “big box” retailers are going to have on healthcare delivery in the U.S., this episode of Raise the Line has some answers. Host Shiv Gaglani welcomes Marcus Osborne, a senior leader at Walmart Health, who is helping to build a new approach that could shake-up the whole industry. “If we can create a model that is actually compelling for consumers, and consumers are willing to pay for it, then we don't really care what the payers do about us,” says Osborne, who has plenty of other candid insights to share. For instance, he believes the challenge the U.S. is facing is a “vast underconsumption” of healthcare, not overconsumption as many healthcare policy experts contend. His point is that too many people simply don’t get the care they need due to the cost and complexity of the current system, and that delay inevitably drives costs up over time. He’s hoping to change that with in-store clinics that will offer a variety of medical and dental services under one roof at an affordable price. Check out this fascinating discussion as Osborne speculates that worsening shortages of healthcare workers will make it necessary to find new ways to leverage new technology and types of providers, and that much greater accountability for the quality of care delivered will be a reality sooner rather than later. This is a great opportunity to get a peek at the future of healthcare.


Reimagining the Education-Health Connection: Dr. Ryan Padrez, Medical Director of The Primary School


As a pediatrician, Dr. Ryan Padrez was frustrated by the challenges of navigating education and health systems to get his patients the services they needed – whether it was speech therapy, mental health counseling or other important care. That’s why he’s gratified to be involved in building a model for early education, developed by the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, that integrates learning with health care and family support services. Padrez is medical director of The Primary School which is currently serving two lower income communities near San Francisco, but has ambitions to develop best practices that will be adopted nationally. The emphasis is on supporting all of a child’s needs from very early in their life and working closely with parents to build child and family well-being at the same time. COVID has increased the challenge because many of the school’s parents have lost jobs and health coverage, and levels of stress are on the rise. Padrez, who is also an assistant clinical professor of Pediatrics at Stanford University, says COVID has shined a light on just how much schools do to support the health needs of children and families, and the connection between the two systems needs to be strengthened going forward if kids are going to thrive. Padrez and host Dr. Rishi Desai also touch on trauma-informed care, the trust schools need to build with families, and what the evidence says about the safety of opening schools in the midst of COVID.


Knowing Your Patients as a Person - Dr. Ken Johnson, Executive Dean of Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine


“If a patient feels like their doctor knows them as a person, they're eight to nine times more likely to follow through with their treatment instructions,” says Dr. Ken Johnson. Creating that kind of connection is more challenging in a virtual visit, he worries, not to mention the reduced opportunity to take the actual “hands-on” approach to care that osteopathic physicians practice. But schools of medicine like the one he runs at Ohio University are finding ways to teach telehealth skills, and Johnson has confidence the students will make it work. “Students have great ideas about how to evolve things, and I challenge every single class that comes in to give us feedback to improve the process for them,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. Embracing the sudden ascendence of telehealth is just one of the major adjustments today’s medical students are having to make in the midst of a once-in-a-century pandemic, and Johnson sees building their resilience to manage the stressful and unpredictable nature of a career in medicine as a key objective, which he says can be accomplished if you create an “environment of support.” Catch this conversation with host Shiv Gaglani as Johnson discusses how that can be done, strategies for serving rural communities and why so many schools of osteopathic medicine are located in relatively small towns.

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