Acute tubular necrosis
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a type of acute kidney injury (AKI) that results in the sudden and rapid death of tubular cells in the kidneys. This can lead to a decrease in urine production and an increase in the levels of creatinine and urea in the blood.
ATN may be caused by sepsis leading to hypotension and renal hypoperfusion; ischemia due to renal hypoperfusion, like in hypovolemic shock; but it can also be due to exposure to toxins and nephrotoxic drugs which cause damage to the tubular cells. Such drugs include nephrotoxic antibiotics, contrast agents used during imaging studies, amphotericin B, and toxic heavy metals.