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Antimetabolites: Sulfonamides and trimethoprim
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Cephalosporins
Cell wall synthesis inhibitors: Penicillins
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Fluoroquinolones
DNA synthesis inhibitors: Metronidazole
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Miscellaneous cell wall synthesis inhibitors
Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitors
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Aminoglycosides
Protein synthesis inhibitors: Tetracyclines
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
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The “retro” part of retrovirus isn’t referring to its style, but refers to it needing to use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to transcribe a piece of “proviral” DNA from its RNA.
As the name suggests, reverse transcriptase inhibitors go and inhibit this enzyme, and prevent HIV replication.
Normally, the CD4 molecule helps these cells attach to and communicate with other immune cells, which is particularly important when the cells are launching attacks against foreign pathogens.
HIV attaches to the CD4 molecule via a protein called gp120 found on its envelope.
Now, inside its envelope, HIV contains a nucleocapsid which is a capsule containing a single-stranded RNA and some viral enzymes, like reverse transcriptase and integrase.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are a class of antiviral drugs used to manage HIV infection, which work by inhibiting HIV's reverse transcriptase enzyme. This enzyme prevents the multiplication of the virus and slows down the progression of the disease. Medications in this class include zidovudine, stavudine, lamivudine, didanosine, and tenofovir. Common side effects may include gastrointestinal disturbances like nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, insomnia, and headache.
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