What Is It, Causes, Treatment, and More
Author: Anna Hernández, MD
Editors: Ahaana Singh, Józia McGowan, DO, FACOI, FNAOME, CS
Illustrator: Jillian Dunbar
Copyeditor: Joy Mapes
What is pebble poop?
Pebble poop refers to hard, pebble-like lumps of feces that occur when a larger mass of fecal matter breaks apart into smaller pieces. Pebble poop is a sign of constipation, which occurs when bowel movements happen less often than expected or when stools become hard and difficult to pass. Although the usual frequency of bowel movements varies considerably from person to person, most people with a healthy digestive system spontaneously pass soft, well-formed stools at a rate from three times a week to three times a day.
What causes pebble poop?
Pebble poop indicates that stool is moving through the digestive tract at a slower pace than usual. As food passes through the digestive system, the body slowly transfers nutrients and water through the intestinal lining into the bloodstream. The small intestine is responsible for absorbing most nutrients and vitamins, while the large intestine absorbs excess water from fecal matter, helping it condense into a more solid form. When an individual is constipated, stool remains in the large intestine too long, giving the intestine more time to absorb water. This dries out the stool and turns it into a large, hard mass that is more difficult to pass. In certain cases, this mass can break apart into smaller lumps of stool, causing pebble poop.
Constipation is sometimes due to a combination of lifestyle and dietary factors, such as a low-fiber diet, inadequate fluid intake, and a sedentary lifestyle. Many medications may also contribute to constipation by slowing down bowel movements or by making stools harder and more difficult to pass. These medications include antidepressants, opioids, iron supplements, and antacids containing aluminum or calcium salts. Additionally, constipation is a possible symptom of some conditions that interfere with the normal functioning of the digestive tract, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), diverticulitis (i.e., inflammation of small pouches that form in the intestinal lining), and colon cancer. Other conditions that may cause constipation include electrolyte imbalances (e.g., high blood calcium levels), decreased thyroid function, and neurological conditions, like dementia or Parkinson’s disease.Finally, constipation can perpetuate itself. Increased straining during bowel movements can cause swelling of the veins located in the lower part of the rectum and anus (i.e., hemorrhoids) and tear the lining of the anal canal (i.e., anal fissures). These conditions can make defecation so painful that an individual might avoid passing stool voluntarily, further contributing to constipation.
What does pebble poop look like?
Pebble poop presents as separate, small pieces of stool that resemble tiny rocks or pebbles. Despite their small size, these lumps are often very hard and difficult to pass.
How is pebble poop diagnosed?
Pebble poop can be diagnosed based on the Bristol stool chart, which is designed to help individuals and healthcare professionals classify stools based on appearance.Pebble poop falls into the type 1 category, which is defined as small, hard lumps of stool that are difficult to pass. Type 2 stool is described as sausage-shaped and lumpy, and, like pebble poop, it is indicative of constipation. Type 3 and type 4 stools are also sausage-shaped; while type 3 features cracks on its surface, type 4 is smooth and soft. Both types 3 and 4 are considered to have the ideal consistency, as they are well-formed and easy to pass. Type 5 stool consists of soft blobs with clear-cut edges. Type 6 (fluffy, mushy pieces of stool) and type 7 (completely liquid stool) may indicate urgency or diarrhea, usually appearing due to irritation or inflammation of the intestines.
Passing a hard, dry stool from time to time is generally not a reason to worry, but if it is accompanied by other symptoms, such as pain, rectal bleeding, weight loss, or abdominal bloating, it may be a sign of an underlying health condition. Diagnosis of such underlying conditions may involve a digital rectal exam to check for blood in the stool, as well as to exclude the presence of a fecal impaction, which occurs when a mass of hard, dry stool gets stuck in the large intestine or rectum. Depending on the clinical suspicion, additional laboratory or imaging tests (e.g., abdominal x-ray, computerized tomography (CT) scan, colonoscopy) may be recommended to confirm the diagnosis.
How is pebble poop treated?
Pebble poop can be treated with measures to improve digestive health and relieve constipation. Most cases of constipation can be treated with dietary and lifestyle changes, including cutting back on sugary and fatty foods, eating plenty of fiber-rich foods (e.g., fruits and vegetables, whole-grain cereals, legumes, nuts), staying hydrated, and exercising regularly. Some individuals may also benefit from treatment with fiber supplements or stool softeners, which can ease the passage of stool through the digestive tract.
If constipation persists despite dietary and lifestyle changes, treatment with laxatives can help relieve occasional episodes of constipation. However, frequent or long-term use of laxatives can actually worsen constipation by interfering with the normal functioning of the bowels. Laxative use may also be dangerous if constipation is due to an underlying health condition. In such cases, treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause, if possible.
What are the most important facts to know about pebble poop?
Pebble poop refers to small, pebble-like lumps of stool that are difficult to pass. Pebble poop is a sign of constipation, when bowel movements are infrequent or passing stool is difficult. Constipation is sometimes a result of lifestyle and dietary factors, but it can also occur due to several health conditions or the use of certain medications. Diagnosis of pebble poop relies on the Bristol stool chart, which can be used to classify stools based on their appearance. Treatment of pebble poop is aimed at improving digestive health and relieving constipation. First-line remedies include eating high-fiber foods, staying hydrated, and exercising regularly. If necessary, laxatives may be recommended to relieve occasional episodes of constipation. Finally, if constipation persists or is accompanied by warning signs (e.g., blood in the stool, weight loss, abdominal bloating), additional tests may be advised to rule out any underlying health conditions.
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Resources for research and reference
Andrews, C., & Storr, M. (2011). The pathophysiology of chronic constipation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 25 Suppl B(Suppl B): 16B-21B. DOI: 10.1155/2011/169319
Bharucha, A., Pemberton, J., & Locke, G. R., III. (2013). American Gastroenterological Association technical review on constipation. Gastroenterology, 144(1): 218-238. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.10.028Tack, J., Müller-Lissner, S., Stanghellini, V., Boeckxstaens, G., Kamm, M., Simren, M., Galmiche, J-P, & Fried, M. (2011). Diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation -- a European perspective. Neurogastroenterology and Motility: The Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society, 23(8): 697-710. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01709.x