Summary of Mucormycosis
Mucormycosis is any fungal infection, though usually of the sinuses and brain, caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. Mucor and Rhizopus species are most often implicated. These fungi have irregular, broad, nonseptate hyphae branching at wide angles. Diabetic patients in ketoacidosis and neutropenic patients are most at risk for the disease. The fungi proliferate in blood vessel walls, then penetrate the cribriform plate to enter the brain and cause cavernous sinus thrombosis and/or cranial nerve involvement. A black necrotic eschar is seen on the face. Treatment is with surgical debridement and amphotericin B.