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The female reproductive system consists of internal sex organs, which include the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, and the vagina; and external sex organs, such as the mons pubis, the labia, and the clitoris. Now, the most common disorders of the female reproductive system typically affect the internal sex organs, and they include infertility, menstrual disorders, pelvic organ prolapse, and benign and malignant growths.
Let’s start with infertility, which is defined as the inability to become pregnant after 12 months of trying. Fertility problems can affect both partners. As a biological female gets older, the likelihood of infertility increases until pregnancy is no longer possible after menopause. Some other common causes of female infertility include hormonal imbalance, ovulation problems, structural abnormalities of the reproductive system and scar tissue from prior surgeries, or infections in the female reproductive tract.
Now, let’s switch our focus to menstrual disorders. Amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual bleeding, and it can be classified as primary or secondary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is defined as the absence of the first menstrual bleeding by the age of 16, and it can be caused by abnormal development of reproductive organs, hormone imbalances, and malnutrition. On the other hand, secondary amenorrhea refers to the absence of menstrual bleeding in individuals who previously had regular menstrual cycles. Moreover, secondary amenorrhea is one of the first signs of pregnancy, but it can also be caused by endocrine disorders or tumors.
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