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|LUNG SURFACTANTS AND ANTENATAL CORTICOSTEROIDS|
|DRUG NAME||beractant (Survanta), calfactant (Infasurf), poractant alfa (Curosurf)||betamethasone (Celestone Soluspan), dexamethasone (Decadron)|
|CLASS||Exogenous lung surfactants||Corticosteroids|
|MECHANISM OF ACTION||Form a film coating the inner alveolar walls to reduce the surface tension and prevent the alveoli from collapsing||Promote fetal lung maturation and stimulate the production of endogenous lung surfactant by type II pneumocytes|
|INDICATIONS||Preterm newborns before 34 weeks of gestation||Expected preterm labor between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation|
|ROUTE(S) OF ADMINISTRATION|
|CONTRAINDICATIONS AND CAUTIONS|
LUNG SURFACTANTS AND ANTENATAL CORTICOSTEROIDS
|BERACTANT, CALFACTANT, PORACTANT ALFA||Preadministration|
Exogenous surfactants are usually administered directly into the newborn’s airways through an endotracheal, or ET tube, or via less invasive surfactant administration or LISA for short, such as nebulized surfactant preparations, laryngeal masks, and intratracheal instillation.
Once administered, lung surfactants form a film that coats the inner walls of the alveoli. This film decreases the surface tension, which helps maintain the alveolar shape by preventing the inner walls from sticking to each other and collapsing during expiration.
Now, before birth, corticosteroids like betamethasone and dexamethasone can be administered to promote fetal lung maturation. This is also known as antenatal corticosteroid therapy, and it is usually administered intramuscularly to pregnant clients at 24 to 33 weeks and 6 days of gestation who are expected to go into preterm labor.
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