00:00 / 00:00
0 / 9 complete
0 / 5 complete
|Fasting glucose||137 mg/dL|
|24-hour urine cortisol*||72 µg/day|
|Serum ACTH**||35 pg/mL|
pituitary adenoma and p. 544
pituitary adenoma p. 544
pituitary adenomas and p. 344, NaN
acromegaly and p. 343
GH and p. 340
goiter and p. 348
hypopituitarism and p. 351
diabetes insipidus p. 344
MEN 1 and p. 358
Normally, the pituitary is a pea-sized gland, hanging by a stalk from the base of the brain.
It sits just behind the eyes near the optic chiasm, which is where the optic nerves cross.
The second largest cell group are the corticotrophs which secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, or ACTH for short.
A smaller cell group are the lactotrophs which secrete prolactin.
There are also thyrotrophs which are cells that secrete thyroid stimulating hormone, or TSH which goes on to stimulate the thyroid gland.
And finally, there are also gonadotrophs which secrete two gonadotropic hormones - luteinizing hormone, or LH, and follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, both of which go on to stimulate the ovaries or testes.
In pituitary adenomas, one of these cells mutates and becomes neoplastic, meaning that it starts dividing uncontrollably and over time it forms a tumor.
Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. They vary depending on their size and the type of hormones they produce. Some pituitary adenomas do not produce any hormones and are referred to as non-functioning adenomas, while others produce hormones that can cause a wide range of symptoms.
Common symptoms include headaches, visual disturbances, fatigue, and changes in sexual function or menstrual cycles. The most common types involve lactotrophs that make prolactin, somatotrophs that make growth hormones, and corticotrophs that make ACTH. They are usually diagnosed by checking hormone levels and obtaining an MRI and are treated with medications or surgery.
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