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Pelvis and perineum
At first glance it may seem like a small and insignificant area but it actually plays a key role in micturition, defecation, intercourse, and delivery by supporting the urinary, gastrointestinal and reproductive organs of the pelvis!
Now, let’s start with the outer surface of the perineum, called the perineal region. This region is shaped like a diamond that extends posterolaterally from the inferior surface of the pubic symphysis, to the ischial tuberosities laterally, bounded by the inferior pubic and inferior ischial rami anterolaterally.
This diamond is divided into two triangles by an imaginary transverse line that extends from the two ischial tuberosities.
Now, in the middle of the imaginary line that connects the ischiopubic rami lies an irregular mass called the perineal body.
This mass forms the central point of the perineum, and is a meeting point for many muscles, including the superficial transverse perineal muscles, deep transverse perineal muscles, levator ani, bulbopongiosus, external anal sphincter, and external urethral sphincter muscles.
The superficial perineal fascia also has two layers; a superficial fatty layer and a deep membranous layer. The superficial fatty layer differs between females and males.
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