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Pelvis and perineum
Anatomy of the female reproductive organs of the pelvis
Anatomy of the female urogenital triangle
Anatomy of the gastrointestinal organs of the pelvis and perineum
Anatomy of the male reproductive organs of the pelvis
Anatomy of the male urogenital triangle
Anatomy of the pelvic cavity
Anatomy of the pelvic girdle
Anatomy of the perineum
Anatomy of the urinary organs of the pelvis
Arteries and veins of the pelvis
Nerves and lymphatics of the pelvis
Anatomy clinical correlates: Female pelvis and perineum
Anatomy clinical correlates: Male pelvis and perineum
The pelvis contains numerous structures, all supplied by the neurovascular structures of the pelvis, including nerves, arteries, veins, and lymph nodes. These structures are found on the posterolateral walls of the pelvic cavity.
Lymph nodes are usually clustered around the veins, and lymph vessels that come off these nodes ascend parallel to the veins. Let's focus our attention on the arteries and veins of the pelvis.
Now, the arteries of the pelvis originate from the abdominal aorta, which is the continuation of the thoracic aorta below the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm. The abdominal aorta gives branches to various organs in the abdomen, then divides at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Each artery runs inferolaterally, and ends at the level of the intervertebral disc between L5 and S1 by dividing into the internal and external iliac arteries. Let’s talk about each of those branches. First are the external iliac arteries, which descend on the medial border of a muscle called the psoas major.
After running for a short distance, each external iliac artery gives two branches, called the inferior epigastric and deep circumflex iliac arteries. These branches supply the anterolateral aspect of the abdominal wall. Then, each external iliac artery passes underneath the inguinal ligament to become the femoral artery, which is the main artery that supplies the lower limbs.
There are a few different arteries and veins that serve and drain the pelvic region. The main artery is the iliac artery, which branches off into the internal iliac artery and the external iliac artery. The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the pelvic organs, while the external iliac artery supplies blood to the lower extremities.
The veins of the pelvis include the internal iliac veins, which unite with the external iliac veins to form two common iliac veins, one on the right, and the other one on the left. The two common iliac veins unite to form the inferior vena cava, which drains into the right atrium of the heart.
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