00:00 / 00:00
0 / 8 complete
0 / 1 complete
|Calcium, serum||7.6 mg/dL|
|Partial thromboplastin time||60 seconds|
|Prothrombin time||28 seconds|
chronic pancreatitis and p. 406
pancreatic insufficiency from p. 390
chronic pancreatitis p. 406
Chronic pancreatitis is inflammation due to irreversible changes to the pancreatic structure, like fibrosis, atrophy and calcification.
The pancreas is a long, skinny gland the length of a dollar bill and is located in the upper abdomen, or the epigastric region, behind the stomach. It plays endocrine roles—for example, alpha and beta cells make hormones like insulin and glucagon that are secreted into the bloodstream, but it also plays exocrine roles— for example, acinar cells make digestive enzymes that are secreted into the duodenum to help digest food.
To protect the pancreas, the acinar cells manufacture inactive forms of the enzymes called proenzymes, or zymogens.
These zymogens are normally activated by proteases which cleave off a polypeptide chain, which is kind of like pulling the pin on a grenade.
For additional security, the zymogens are kept away from sensitive tissues in storage vesicles called zymogen granules, and are packaged with protease inhibitors that prevent enzymes from doing damage if they become prematurely active.
Trypsin is a pancreatic digestive enzyme that is produced as the zymogen trypsinogen.
Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, its licensors, and contributors. All rights are reserved, including those for text and data mining, AI training, and similar technologies.
Cookies are used by this site.
USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.