Acid-base map and compensatory mechanisms


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Acid-base map and compensatory mechanisms

Renal system

Anatomy and physiology

Renal system anatomy and physiology

Fluid compartments and homeostasis


Body fluid compartments

Movement of water between body compartments

Renal clearance, glomerular filtration and renal blood flow

Renal clearance

Glomerular filtration

TF/Px ratio and TF/Pinulin

Measuring renal plasma flow and renal blood flow

Regulation of renal blood flow

Renal tubular reabsorption and secretion

Tubular reabsorption and secretion

Tubular secretion of PAH

Tubular reabsorption of glucose

Urea recycling

Tubular reabsorption and secretion of weak acids and bases

Renal tubular physiology

Proximal convoluted tubule

Loop of Henle

Distal convoluted tubule

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Renal electrolyte regulation

Sodium homeostasis

Potassium homeostasis

Phosphate, calcium and magnesium homeostasis

Renal sodium and water regulation


Sodium homeostasis

Antidiuretic hormone

Kidney countercurrent multiplication

Free water clearance

Renal endocrine functions

Vitamin D


Acid-base physiology

Physiologic pH and buffers

Buffering and Henderson-Hasselbalch equation

The role of the kidney in acid-base balance

Acid-base map and compensatory mechanisms

Respiratory acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

Plasma anion gap

Respiratory alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis


Acid-base map and compensatory mechanisms


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Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Marisa Pedron

Tanner Marshall, MS

Every single moment, there are trillions of biochemical reactions going on inside our bodies. These reactions are mediated by enzymes, and for these enzymes to function properly, the pH of our body fluids needs be within a tightly regulated range.

This pH depends on the ratio of the concentration of bases, mainly HCO3−, and acids, mainly CO2, and it’s calculated by a lengthy, complicated equation, known as the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, where pH = 6.1 + log HCO3− concentration / 0.03 partial pressure of CO2.

If we focus on the pH of our arterial blood, we can design a diagram, or acid- base map, with the concentration of HCO3− on the x axis, and the partial pressure of CO2, or PCO2, on the y axis.

Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, we can plot a line called an isohydric line that starts at the origin.

The term isohydric means that along these points, they all share the same or “iso-“ concentration of hydrogenated ions or same pH - “hydric”.

For example, let’s say HCO3− concentration is 24 mEq/L and PCO2 is 40 mmHg. According to the Henderson- Hasselbalch equation, this would give us a pH of 7.4. Now, we’ d have the same pH of 7.4 if there was a HCO3− concentration of 36 mEq/L and PCO2 of 60 mmHg, or with a HCO3− concentration of 12 mEq/L and a PCO2 of 20 mmHg.

In fact, we can draw out two more isohydric lines - this time for a pH of 7.35, and another for a pH of 7.45. A normal pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, so you can see that there are a lot of combinations of HCO3− concentration and PCO2 that are between these two lines that would result in a normal pH.

In fact, because it’s so important for the body to stay between these lines, the body has designed several mechanisms to maintain homeostasis or balance.

One mechanism involves the lungs, specifically the rate and depth of breathing which controls the amount of CO2 that’s breathed out.

And another mechanism involves the kidneys, which, slowly can carefully control the amount of HCO3− that’s excreted.

Now, sometimes these regulatory processes get disturbed. Specifically, if there’s a decrease in the ratio of HCO3− concentration to PCO2, the pH drops below 7.35 and we shift to the upper left part of the acid- base map, where there’s acidosis.


Acid-base maps and compensatory mechanisms are great tools for managing pH levels in the body. Ideally, the body should maintain a slightly alkaline pH range of 7.35 to 7.45. However, sometimes the body's pH levels can become unbalanced, usually due to an illness, like diabetic ketoacidosis.

When this happens, the body kicks off its compensatory mechanisms to restore the normal blood pH range. One mechanism involves the lungs, which through the control of the rate and depth of breathing regulate the amount of CO2 that's breathed out; and the kidneys, which carefully control the amount of HCO3 �� that's excreted.


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