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|DRUG NAME||chloramphenicol |
|CLASS||Miscellaneous protein synthesis inhibitor|
|MECHANISM OF ACTION||Binds to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and preventing bacterial growth|
|INDICATIONS||Alternative treatment of bacterial meningitis, typhus, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (rarely used due to severe toxicity)|
|ROUTE(S) OF ADMINISTRATION||IV|
INDICATIONS AND CAUTIONS
|NURSING CONSIDERATIONS||Assessment and monitoring |
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
However, due to its severe toxicity, chloramphenicol is no longer used as the first medication of choice in most countries with access to safer antibiotics; instead, this medication is typically used when other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.
Nowadays, chloramphenicol is most often used intravenously, and since it readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, it may be used to treat bacterial meningitis in clients who have major hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin.
Once administered, chloramphenicol has a bacteriostatic effect by reversibly binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, and ultimately stopping bacterial growth.
Now, chloramphenicol may cause side effects like gastrointestinal disturbances, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
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