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|ANTIBIOTICS: BETA LACTAM/BETA LACTAMASE INHIBITOR COMBINATIONS|
|DRUG NAME||Penicillins: ampicillin/sulbactam (Unasyn), amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin), piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn)|
Cephalosporins: ceftolozane/tazobactam (Zerbaxa), ceftazidime/avibactam (Avycaz)
|CLASS||Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations|
|MECHANISM of ACTION||Beta-lactamase inhibitors bind to beta-lactamase enzymes in the bacteria and prevent the breakdown of the beta-lactam ring in the antibiotic molecule|
|ROUTE(S) of ADMIN|
|CONTRAINDICATIONS & CAUTIONS|
|NURSING CONSIDERATIONS for |
ANTIBIOTICS: BETA LACTAM/BETA LACTAMASE INHIBITOR COMBINATIONS
|ASSESSMENT & MONITORING||Assessment |
Beta-lactams are a group of antibiotics that contain a beta-lactam ring in their structure that is essential for the antibacterial activity of antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins. However, over time, due to their widespread use, some bacteria have acquired resistance by developing enzymes called beta-lactamases. For this reason, some beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with a class of medications known as beta-lactamase inhibitors in order to treat infections caused by beta-lactam-resistant bacteria like Haemophilus influenzae, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides fragilis, Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., and Acinetobacter spp. Additionally, cephalosporin-containing combinations are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Now, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations typically contain either a penicillin or a cephalosporin combined with a beta-lactamase inhibitor. Commonly used penicillin beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations include amoxicillin-clavulanate, which is given orally; ampicillin-sulbactam, which is given intramuscularly and intravenously; and piperacillin-tazobactam, which is given intravenously. Commonly used cephalosporin beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations include ceftazidime-avibactam, which is given intravenously; and ceftolozane-tazobactam, which is given orally.
Beta-lactam antibiotics, named after their beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, are a type of antibiotic that kills bacteria. Beta-lactamase is an enzyme that these bacteria produce to disable beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactamase inhibitors are another type of antibiotic that are co-administered with beta-lactam antibiotics, to prevent bacteria from disabling these antibiotics using their enzymes.
The combination of a beta-lactam and a beta-lactamase inhibitor is called a "beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor" (BL/BLI) combination. BL/BLI combinations are used to treat many types of infections, including lung infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, and stomach infections.
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