Summary of Gel electrophoresis and genetic testing
Genetic testing, also known as DNA testing, allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a child's parentage (genetic mother and father) or in general a person's ancestry or biological relationship between people. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders. Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The variety of genetic tests has expanded throughout the years. In the past, the main genetic tests searched for abnormal chromosome numbers and mutations that lead to rare, inherited disorders. Today, tests involve analyzing multiple genes to determine the risk of developing certain more common diseases such as heart disease and cancer. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Several hundred genetic tests are currently in use, and more are being developed.
Gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique used to separate and identify DNA fragments, RNA fragments, or proteins according to their size and charge. In this laboratory method, the macromolecule sample is loaded onto a well on the negative electrode end of the porous gel and bathed with a buffer, and an electric current is applied to the apparatus to migrate the molecule across the gel towards the positive electrode. Smaller macromolecules move faster across the porous gel compared to larger macromolecules, leading to relative separation of fragments/proteins based on size. The distances that the macromolecules run on the gel can then be compared to a standard ladder, providing the actual size of the analyzed sample.
Flashcards on Gel electrophoresis and genetic testing
Gel electrophoresis and genetic testing
In size-independent gel electrophoresis, agarose separates proteins by (charge/weight) .