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migraine headaches p. 536
tension headaches p. 536
This disorder causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest in everyday activities.
Alright, now within the brain, there are many different types of neurons, but we’re just going to focus on two: serotonergic neurons which produce serotonin, and noradrenergic neurons which produces norepinephrine.
Each of these neurons synthesizes and stores their neurotransmitters in small vesicles.
So, when an action potential reaches the presynaptic membrane, these vesicles fuse with the membrane, releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.
Once released, serotonin or 5-HT binds to 5-HT2 receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, thereby increasing neural stimulation and regulating mood, feeding, and reproductive behavior.
As long as there’s a high enough concentration of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft, the postsynaptic neurons will continue to fire.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, migraine, and chronic pain. They are named for their chemical structure, which includes three rings of atoms.
TCAs work by preventing serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake from the synaptic cleft, thus enhancing the effect of both neurotransmitters on postsynaptic neurons. Some common TCAs include amitriptyline, imipramine, and nortriptyline.
Common side effects include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. TCAs can also cause more serious side effects, such as heart rhythm disturbances, seizures, and an increased risk of suicide, particularly in younger individuals.
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