Summary of Arterial disease
Atherosclerosis is an intimal plaque of the medium-large arteries that begins as fatty streaks and progresses to plaque formation. The plaque can rupture and cause thrombosis or embolism. Complications account for >50% of disease in the Western world. Arteriolosclerosis is narrowing of small vessels, either by protein leakage into the vessel wall (hyaline type) or by hyperplasia of vascular smooth muscle (hyperplastic type). The former occurs with hypertension and diabetes and may lead to eventual renal failure, the latter with malignant hypertension. Monckeberg's medial calcific sclerosis is nonobstructive calcification of medium-sized arteries that may be incidentally found on X-ray.