Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are benign smooth muscle tumors and are the commonest tumor overall in females. They are dependant upon estrogen
for their growth and can (rarely) progress to leiomyosarcoma. Peak occurrence is at 20-40 years of age. Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor. Submucosal fibroids present with abnormal vaginal bleeding and menorrhagia or menometrorrhagia. Intramural fibroids are the commonest type. Subserosal fibroids can grow and cause pressure effects on surrounding organs, and can sometimes become 'parasitic' fibroids that break away from the uterus and attach to other organs. DIagnosis is via ultrasound or hysteroscopy. Biopsy gives a definitive diagnosis. Histology shows a whorled pattern of smooth muscle bundles with well-demarcated borders. Treatment is with myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, or hysterectomy if childbearing is complete.