Alcohol-induced liver disease


00:00 / 00:00



Alcohol-induced liver disease

Gastrointestinal system

Peritoneum and peritoneal cavity disorders



Upper gastrointestinal tract disorders

Cleft lip and palate

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Esophageal web

Tracheoesophageal fistula

Pyloric stenosis



Oral candidiasis

Ludwig angina

Aphthous ulcers

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Dental abscess

Gingivitis and periodontitis

Dental caries disease

Oral cancer

Warthin tumor

Barrett esophagus


Plummer-Vinson syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome

Boerhaave syndrome

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Zenker diverticulum

Diffuse esophageal spasm

Esophageal cancer

Eosinophilic esophagitis (NORD)


Gastric dumping syndrome

Peptic ulcer


Cyclic vomiting syndrome


Gastric cancer

Lower gastrointestinal tract disorders


Imperforate anus


Meckel diverticulum

Intestinal atresia

Hirschsprung disease

Intestinal malrotation

Necrotizing enterocolitis


Tropical sprue

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome

Celiac disease

Short bowel syndrome (NORD)

Lactose intolerance

Whipple's disease

Protein losing enteropathy

Microscopic colitis

Crohn disease

Ulcerative colitis

Bowel obstruction

Intestinal adhesions


Gallstone ileus

Abdominal hernias

Femoral hernia

Inguinal hernia

Small bowel ischemia and infarction

Ischemic colitis

Familial adenomatous polyposis

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Gardner syndrome

Juvenile polyposis syndrome

Colorectal polyps

Colorectal cancer

Carcinoid syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome


Diverticulosis and diverticulitis


Anal fissure

Anal fistula


Rectal prolapse

Liver, gallbladder and pancreas disorders

Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Biliary atresia

Gilbert's syndrome

Dubin-Johnson syndrome

Rotor syndrome



Portal hypertension

Hepatic encephalopathy


Wilson disease

Budd-Chiari syndrome

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Cholestatic liver disease

Hepatocellular adenoma

Autoimmune hepatitis

Alcohol-induced liver disease

Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency

Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Neonatal hepatitis

Reye syndrome

Benign liver tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Biliary colic

Acute cholecystitis

Ascending cholangitis

Chronic cholecystitis

Gallstone ileus

Gallbladder cancer


Acute pancreatitis

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Chronic pancreatitis

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

Gastrointestinal system pathology review

Congenital gastrointestinal disorders: Pathology review

Esophageal disorders: Pathology review

GERD, peptic ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer: Pathology review

Inflammatory bowel disease: Pathology review

Malabsorption syndromes: Pathology review

Diverticular disease: Pathology review

Appendicitis: Pathology review

Gastrointestinal bleeding: Pathology review

Colorectal polyps and cancer: Pathology review

Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system: Pathology review

Pancreatitis: Pathology review

Gallbladder disorders: Pathology review

Jaundice: Pathology review

Viral hepatitis: Pathology review

Cirrhosis: Pathology review


Alcohol-induced liver disease


0 / 5 complete

USMLE® Step 1 questions

0 / 2 complete

High Yield Notes

27 pages


Alcohol-induced liver disease

of complete


USMLE® Step 1 style questions USMLE

of complete

A 52-year-old man is brought to the emergency department by his partner due to altered mental status. He is disoriented and unarousable, but his partner is able to provide medical information. The patient has not seen a physician in several years, but he has noticed increased abdominal distension and leg swelling in the last year. Past medical history is notable for IV drug use and chronic hepatitis C infection, which was diagnosed 30 years ago. However, the patient has not used intravenous drugs in over 10 years. Physical examination reveals gynecomastia and multiple spider angiomata. His abdomen is significantly distended, with visible paraumbilical veins; shifting dullness to percussion is present. Splenomegaly is noted. The patient has 3+ pitting edema of the lower extremities. Which set of laboratory findings is most consistent with this patient’s presentation?

External References

First Aid








Alcoholic liver disease p. 400

External Links


Content Reviewers

Rishi Desai, MD, MPH


Tanner Marshall, MS

Alright, so when you drink alcohol, what happens? Well, okay, what happens to the alcohol? Well that’s mainly your liver’s job, right?

Basically, once the alcohol gets to your stomach, most of it’s sent to your liver for processing.

In very small amounts, alcohol is more or less harmless, but in excess, it can lead to serious liver complications, and is the leading cause of liver disease in western nations.

Once in the liver cells or hepatocytes, it can take one of three pathways, one of which involves an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase or simply ADH, and this happens in the cytosol of the cell, another involves a catalase inside organelles called peroxisomes, and a third involves being converted by the enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1, sometimes just shortened to CYP2E1.

All three of these pathways lead to the conversion of alcohol to acetaldehyde.

Once the ADH enzyme is used to convert the alcohol, it needs another compound called NAD+, which is then converted into NADH.

As NADH levels increase, and NAD+ levels decrease, this has two effects, higher NADH levels tell the cell to start producing more fatty acids, and lower NAD+ levels result in less fatty acid oxidation, both of which lead to more fat production in the liver.

Now excessive fat in the liver is also known as fatty change or fatty liver, where it gets large, heavy, greasy, and tender, but typically at this point, patients don’t have symptoms like fever or high levels of neutrophils in the blood.

The liver also often takes on a more yellowish color, which is due to all these fat deposits, and we can see that on histology.

All these circles are deposits of fat that contribute to fatty liver disease, and sometimes this buildup of fat in the liver is referred to as steatosis.

Treating fatty liver disease usually involves simply stopping the alcohol consumption.

K so that’s fatty liver, but that’s not the only thing that excessive alcohol consumption can cause, right?


Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties

Cookies are used by this site.

USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® is a registered trademark of The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. NCLEX-RN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. Test names and other trademarks are the property of the respective trademark holders. None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Osmosis or this website.